5 Water Conservation Practices Explained
Water conservation practices are; greywater recycling, agricultural water conservation, rainwater harvesting, wastewater treatment, and domestic water rationing.
This article discusses water conservation practices, as follows;
1). Greywater Recycling (as one of the Water Conservation Practices)
Grey water conservation is a term used to describe all steps and measures taken to reduce the wastage of non-toxic wastewater from domestic activities like bathing and laundry.
The practice is fairly common in areas with stressed water resources due to low-volume natural reserves, climate change or overpopulation, among other causes .
The method of greywater recycling is one of various techniques that make up a typical greywater management scheme, and as the term implies; it is solely concerned with making non-toxic waste water reusable.
Recycling of greywater can be used in conserving water resources by reducing the rate at which fresh water is abstracted or taken from available reserves; and rather meeting the need with greywater in areas where high-purity is not required.
It is implemented as part of a treatment scheme that includes greywater collection, treatment and reuse , and has significant ecological benefits that include energy conservation and preservation of the aquatic (and terrestrial) ecosystem from harmful environmental impacts of water resource-depletion .
2). Agricultural Water Conservation
Agricultural water conservation is the sum total of practices aimed to reduce the rate of water consumption in farms without compromising productivity.
The principle of water conservation in agriculture is moisture retention optimization through reduced erosion, runoff, evaporation, leaching and percolation.
Techniques that are best for water conservation in agriculture are; sustainable irrigation, composting, conservation tillage, mulching, rotational grazing, holistic grazing and cover cropping, among others .
One of the unique attributes of water conservation in agriculture is that it is bi-faceted, so that soil conservation occurs at the same time as water is being conserved, especially in crop-dominated systems.
Agricultural water conservation has both ecological and economic benefits, and can play a role in reducing the severity of agro-economic problems like food insecurity, as well as ecological problems like drought.
3). Rainwater Harvesting (as one of the Water Conservation Practices)
Rainwater harvesting or rainwater conservation is the act of capturing, collecting and storing water from rain that flows over the tops of roofs, pavements and other surfaces.
The importance of rainwater harvesting for conserving water resources, is based on the fact that rainwater can serve as an alternative reserve of fresh water, especially when it is collected and filtered under sanitary conditions .
In areas where freshwater reserves are insufficient and stressed, rainwater harvesting presents benefits that include energy conservation and minimization of environmental impacts of water management.
Water Conservation Practices: Rainwater Harvesting (Credit: SuSanA Secretariat 2011 .CC BY 2.0.)
4). Wastewater Treatment
Treatment of wastewater is a prominent issue with respect to water conservation, so that any robust scheme or study of the latter most include reference to wastewater treatment methods, steps or equipment .
The basic stages of wastewater treatment are;
1). Insoluble contaminant removal (by filtration, decantation, etc.)
2). Soluble contaminant removal (by reverse osmosis, thermal treatment, etc.)
Wastewater treatment is also an essential component of any elaborate water management scheme, alongside recycling and reuse .
5). Domestic Water Rationing (as one of the Water Conservation Practices)
Water rationing is the deliberate limiting of water consumption rates in order to prevent wastage and depletion of reserves.
It can be alternatively described as domestic water conservation, because the method is mostly used within a domestic context in homes and communities.
Examples of domestic water conservation practices are; closure of faucets, installation of flow regulators, leak repairs, use of washing machines and dishwasher only when full, and shortening of shower duration .
Because of the high consciousness and deliberation required to sustain such efforts, water rationing is often made mandatory in areas where it is practiced, and adherence may be further insured by restricting supply .
Water conservation practices are;
1. Greywater Recycling
2. Agricultural Water Conservation
3. Rainwater Harvesting
4. Wastewater Treatment
5. Domestic Water Rationing
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