17 Sustainable Development Goals, Targets and Indicators Explained

The 17 Sustainable Development Goals( also called ‘Global Goals’ or ‘SDGs’) which are discussed in this article, are all designed to achieve economic and social growth while preserving the environment, and natural resources.

Having been adopted and fully established by the United Nations in 2015, the Sustainable Development Agenda is based on a group of defined goals which are set to be accomplished by the year 2030 [13].

This article discussed the seventeen (17) Sustainable Development Goals, as follows;

1). Definition of Some Key Terms

2). Sustainable Development

3). Targets

4). Indicators

5). Means/Measures for Achieving the Goals

6). Sustainable Development Goal 1

7). Sustainable Development Goal 2

8). Sustainable Development Goal 3

9). Sustainable Development Goal 4

10). Sustainable Development Goal 5

11). Sustainable Development Goal 6

12). Sustainable Development Goal 7

13). Sustainable Development Goal 8

 14). Sustainable Development Goal 9

15). Sustainable Development Goal 10

16). Sustainable Development Goal 11

17). Sustainable Development Goal 12

18). Sustainable Development Goal 13

19). Sustainable Development Goal 14

20). Sustainable Development Goal 15

21). Sustainable Development Goal 16

22). Sustainable Development Goals 17

23). Conclusion





Definition of Some Key Terms

*Sustainable Development

Sustainable Development refers to economic and social development, which is carried out while conserving both the environment and its natural resources

In other words, Sustainable Development is an approach to development, that seeks to meet present needs, without jeopardizing the potential of meeting future needs as well.


The targets of Sustainable Development, refer to the definite objectives of the overall Sustainable Development Agenda. SDG Targets represent the exact measures and considerations required to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.


The Sustainable Development indicators are factors which are used to measure or assess the level of progress which has been made in the efforts to meet the targets of the different Sustainable Development Goals.

Each Target of every Sustainable Development Goal has a least one indicator used to measure its progress.

*Means/Measures for Achieving the Goals

These are almost equivalent to the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals. The means for achieving the goals are usually two or three targets which have been identified as the most practical measures that can be taken.



Sustainable Development Goal 1: Eradicate Poverty

sdg 1

As at the year 2015, about 10 percent of the global population lived on less than $1.90 per day [17]. This percentage is equivalent to approximately 734 million individuals.

The prevalence of poverty around the world has declined over the past decade, from about 14.3 percent in the year 2010, to about 7.1 percent in the year 2019 [19]. However, current conditions indicate that poverty rates may intensify, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia [10]. This is mainly as a result of the impact of the Corona Virus Pandemic.

Before the outbreak of the COVID-19 Pandemic, it was already predicted that at least 6 percent of the global population will still be living below the poverty line by the year 2030. This suggests that we may be unable to meet the target of Sustainable Development in the area of eradicating poverty.

About one-sixth of the total population of children in the world are affected by extreme poverty [11]. This has several negative effects on the children and the society at large. Between the years 1990 and 2015, there a was a 26 percent drop (from 36 percent-10 percent) in the number of individuals living in extreme poverty

In spite of the positive changes, some social problems like conflict and economic fluctuations have affected the pace of improvement. Additionally, the COVID-19 Pandemic increased the intensity of social tension surrounding the human population, and as a result increased the risk of poverty.

Social Protection and Relief programs are not being provided sufficiently to meet the global challenge. Up to 55 percent of the world population, or 4 billion people, did not benefit from any form of social protection in 2016 [8].

As we have stated already, about 10 percent of the global population today, still live below the poverty line. This is equivalent to at least 700 million people. Extreme poverty implies that the affected individuals will have limited access to essential needs such as healthcare, sanitation, food, and education, among several others.

 In order to address the issue of global poverty, it is necessary to analyze the conditions, characteristics and causes. Human capacity development is essential, to ensure that human resources are used productively to improve economic conditions for the human population. The associated problems of extreme poverty are causing numerous deaths across the world. These problems include lack of clean water, health facilities and food [2].

Poverty eradication requires cooperation among governments and agencies around the world. to eliminate the causes of economic decline and achieve productivity.


1). Target 1.1: By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day

2). Target 1.2: By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions

3). Target 1.3: Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable

4). Target 1.4: By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance

5). Target 1.5: By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters

6). Target 1.a: Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programs and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions

7). Target 1.b: Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions


For Target 1.1;

1). Indicator 1.1.1: Proportion of the population living below the international poverty line by sex, age, employment status and geographic location (urban/rural)

For Target 1.2:

2). Indicator 1.2.1: Proportion of population living below the national poverty line, by sex and age

3). Indicator 1.2.2: Proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions

For Target 1.3;

4). Indicator 1.3.1: Proportion of population covered by social protection floors/systems, by sex, distinguishing children, unemployed persons, older persons, persons with disabilities, pregnant women, newborns, work-injury victims and the poor and the vulnerable

For Target 1.4;

5). Indicator 1.4.1: Proportion of population living in households with access to basic services

6). Indicator 1.4.2: Proportion of total adult population with secure tenure rights to land, (a) with legally recognized documentation, and (b) who perceive their rights to land as secure, by sex and type of tenure

For Target 1.5;

7). Indicator 1.5.1: Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population

8). Indicator 1.5.2: Direct economic loss attributed to disasters in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP)

9). Indicator 1.5.3: Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030

10). Indicator 1.5.4: Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies

For Target 1.a;

11). Indicator 1.a.1: Total official development assistance grants from all donors that focus on poverty reduction as a share of the recipient country’s gross national income

12). Indicator 1.a.2: Proportion of total government spending on essential services (education, health and social protection)

For Target 1.b;

13). Indicator 1.b.1: Pro-poor public social spending

Measures/Means for Achieving the Goal

-Mobilization of resources to end poverty

-Establishment and implementation of poverty eradication policy frameworks at all levels


Sustainable Development Goal 2: End Hunger

sdg 2


1). Since the year 2015, there has been a rise in the number of people exposed to hunger around the world. About 8.9 percent of the global population is currently exposed to hunger [21], and this number of individuals increases by at least 10 million per year.

2). The World Food Program estimates that about 135 million people face acute hunger across the world [3]. The causes of this include economic decline, human conflict and climate change.

3). In the light of current rates of progress, and the corona virus pandemic, the target to achieve Zero Hunger by the year 2030 is not likely to be met. At the current rate, more than 840 million people will experience acute hunger by 2030. The effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic are capable of increasing the number of affected people exponentially.

4). In the next five years, 60 million most people at least will be exposed to acute hunger, if the current conditions are not changed.

5). In addition to economic and environmental challenges, the rise in world population suggests that the risk of acute hunger is likely to increase.

6). In the year 2019, up to 144 million children were affected by stunting, majority of these children being located in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia [1]. In the same year, about one-tenth of the global population faced severe food insecurity.


The Sustainable Development Goal 2 (or SDG 2) is geared toward achieving zero hunger for the entire human population. We may outline the objectives as follows;

1). Improve Nutrition for the Human Populace

2). Eliminate Food Insecurity

3). Promote and Develop Sustainable Agriculture

The SDG 2 helps to draw attention to the issues related to hunger, malnutrition, and food insecurity. It also highlights the statistics of hunger among the human population, showing how severe the problems are, and providing a basis on which we can plan effective remediation strategies.


1). Target 2.1: By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round

2). Target 2.2: By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons

3). Target 2.3: By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment

4). Target 2.4: By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality

5). Target 2.5: By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed

6). Target 2.a: Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries

7). Target 2.b: Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round

8). Target 2.c: Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility


For Target 2.1;

1). Indicator 2.1.1: Prevalence of undernourishment

2). Indicator 2.1.2: Prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity in the population, based on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES)

For Target 2.2;

3). Indicator 2.2.1: Prevalence of stunting (height for age <-2 standard deviation from the median of the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age

4). Indicator 2.2.2: Prevalence of malnutrition (weight for height >+2 or <-2 standard deviation from the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age, by type (wasting and overweight)

5). Indicator 2.2.3: Prevalence of anemia in women aged 15 to 49 years, by pregnancy status (percentage)

For Target 2.3;

6). Indicator 2.3.1: Volume of production per labor unit by classes of farming/pastoral/forestry enterprise size

7). Indicator 2.3.2: Average income of small-scale food producers, by sex and indigenous status

For Target 2.4;

8). Indicator 2.4.1: Proportion of agricultural area under productive and sustainable agriculture

For Target 2.5;

9). Indicator 2.5.1: Number of (a) plant and (b) animal genetic resources for food and agriculture secured in either medium- or long-term conservation facilities

10). Indicator 2.5.2: Proportion of local breeds classified as being at risk of extinction

For Target 2.a;

11). Indicator 2.a.1: The agriculture orientation index for government expenditures

12). Indicator 2.a.2: Total official flows (official development assistance plus other official flows) to the agriculture sector

For Target 2.b;

13). Indicator 2.b.1: Agricultural export subsidies

For Target 2.c;

14). Indicator 2.c.1: Indicator of food price anomalies


The problem of hunger is not caused directly by a lack of food resources. Studies have shown that more than sufficient food for the human population is produced per year, much of this being wasted [16]. Issues of inequality in terms of the distribution and access to food, are rather responsible for hunger.

The SDG 2 is very important, especially when we consider that hunger is the leading cause of deaths worldwide [6]. There are a number of factors that serve as indicators to measure the progress of the efforts to address global hunger. They are;

-Ending hunger and improving access to food

-Ending all forms of malnutrition

-Agricultural Productivity

-Sustainable food production systems and resilient agricultural practices

-Genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals

-Investments, research and technology.

-Addressing trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets and food commodity markets and their derivatives.


As we have stated earlier, the world is not currently on track toward achieving the goal of Zero Hunger by the year 2030. This means that efforts must be maximized, using the above initiatives (the “indicators” of progress) to see that hunger is fully eradicated.


Sustainable Development Goal 3: Good Health and Well-being

sdg 3

The agenda of the SDG 3 is stated as follows; “To ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages” [20].

This goal is focused on ensuring that the human population is enabled to achieve a life of good health and all-round well-being.


1). In Southern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, numerous child deaths are recorded on a regular basis. This is in spite of serious efforts being made to achieve the SDG 3.

2). The risk of mortality is much higher for children who are exposed to food insecurity, hunger, and malnutrition.

3). There is a fifteen-fold greater likelihood of death for children in Sub-Saharan Africa, compared to their counterparts in the more developed regions.

4). About 6.2 million children under 15 years of age, are estimated to have died from illnesses in 2018 [18]. The illnesses were mostly preventable and common ones, such as malaria, diarrhea, and pneumonia.

5). There has been a decline in maternal mortality rates, by about 75 percent, in Northern Africa, Eastern Asia and Southern Asia.

6). Over 90 percent of maternal deaths worldwide, occur in low to middle income countries.

7). The risk of complications and death during pregnancy is much higher for very young women and adolescents.

8). About 810 maternal deaths occurred on a daily basis, throughout the year 2017.

9). The ratio of maternal mortality between developing and developed nations is roughly 14.0.

10). In the year 2019, about 1.7 million people were newly infected with HIV. In the same year, there were 38 million people living with HIV around the world.

11). In 2019, about 690,000 people have died as a result of AIDS-related diseases. The leading cause of these deaths has been Tuberculosis.

12). AIDS is the second most common cause of adolescent deaths worldwide, and the leading cause of adolescent death in Africa.

13). In recent years, the incidence of malaria has fallen by about 37 percent globally. The mortality rate as a result of this disease, has also fallen by about 58 percent.

Good Health is a very important concept with regards to the Sustainable Development Agenda. The SDG 3 is aimed at achieving social and economic equality, as well as urban development and climate stabilization.

The COVID-19 Pandemic has shed light on the need to address health challenges globally. Before the outbreak of the pandemic, there was much progress being made with regards to improving health conditions for the human populace. It has been shown that there are huge differences in the level of preparedness of various countries to cope with health crises.

The targets under the SDG 3 include;

1). Reduction of Maternal Mortality

2). Fighting Communicable Diseases

3). Ending Preventable Deaths among Children Under Five Years of Age

4). Ensure the Reduction of Mortality from Non-Communicable Diseases

5). Promote Mental Health

6). Prevent and Treat Substance Abuse

7). Grant Universal Access to Sexual and Reproductive Care

8). Reduce Road Injuries and Deaths

9). Family Planning and Education

10). Achieve Universal Health Coverage

11). Reduce Illnesses and Deaths from Pollution and Hazardous Chemicals

As we may observe, the SDG 3 seeks to achieve equitable access to healthcare services to the entire human population, thereby achieving universal health coverage [15]. In the process of achieving this, it is expected that some health-related problems such as preventable deaths, will be addressed.

The measures which have been selected in order to achieve the SDG 3 include;

-The support of Research and Development

-Implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

-Increase Health Financing and Support Health Workforce in Developing Countries

-Universal Access to Affordable Medicines and Vaccines

-Improve Early Warning Systems for Global Health Risks


Sustainable Development Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all

sdg 4

The Sustainable Development Goal 4 (or SDG 4) has to do with the provision of quality education to all.


1). There has been a significant degree of progress in the enhancement of education since the beginning of the twenty-first century

2). The number of children who are out of school, has declined by nearly 50 percent

3). Enrollment rate for children in developing countries, rose to about 91 percent in the year 2015

4). There are currently more girls in school than ever before, and the rate of literacy is rapidly on the rise

5). The major obstacles to providing equitable quality education include social conflict and economic challenges

6). These challenges are particularly prevalent in Northern Africa and Western Asia

7). The greatest progress in primary school enrollment has been recorded in Sub-Saharan Africa, rising from 52 percent in 1990 to 78 percent in 2012

8). There are still large disparities in access to quality education, for children in rural and urban regions. There are also large disparities between children from rich households and poor households

There are ten (10) primary targets associated with the SDG4. They are;

1). Target 4.1: By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes

2). Target 4.2: By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre‑primary education so that they are ready for primary education

3). Target 4.3: By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university

4). Target 4.4: By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship

5). Target 4.5: By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations

6). Target 4.6: By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy

7). Target 4.7: By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development

8). Target 4.a: Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all

9). Target 4.b: By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programs, in developed countries and other developing countries

10). Target 4.c: By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing States


The importance of achieving equitable and inclusive education for all, is based on the fact that education is an essential factor for growth and development at both the individual and collective level. By achieving the targets of SDG 4, universal numeracy and literacy will be actualized.

Measures toward achieving the SDG 4 targets including building and upgrading educational facilities, and providing support to the administration of the educational system.

There are eleven (11) indicators by which the progress of achieving SDG 4 is measured. These indicators are assigned to the targets of achieving this goal. They are as follows;

For Target 4.1;

1). Indicator 4.1.1: Proportion of children and young people (a) in grades 2/3; (b) at the end of primary; and (c) at the end of lower secondary achieving at least a minimum proficiency level in (i) reading and (ii) mathematics, by sex

2). Indicator 4.1.2: Completion rate (primary education, lower secondary education, upper secondary education)

For Target 4.2;

3). Indicator 4.2.1: Proportion of children aged 24–59 months who are developmentally on track in health, learning and psychosocial well-being, by sex

4). Indicator 4.2.2: Participation rate in organized learning (one year before the official primary entry age), by sex

For Target 4.3;

5). Indicator 4.3.1: Participation rate of youth and adults in formal and non-formal education and training in the previous 12 months, by sex

For Target 4.4;

6). Indicator 4.4.1: Proportion of youth and adults with information and communications technology (ICT) skills, by type of skill

For Target 4.5;

7). Indicator 4.5.1: Parity indices (female/male, rural/urban, bottom/top wealth quintile and others such as disability status, indigenous peoples and conflict-affected, as data become available) for all education indicators on this list that can be disaggregated

For Target 4.6;

8). Indicator 4.6.1: Proportion of population in a given age group achieving at least a fixed level of proficiency in functional (a) literacy and (b) numeracy skills, by sex

For Target 4.7;

9). Indicator 4.7.1: Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development are mainstreamed in (a) national education policies; (b) curricula; (c) teacher education; and (d) student assessment

For Target 4.a;

10). Indicator 4.a.1: Proportion of schools offering basic services, by type of service

For Target 4.b;

11). Indicator 4.b.1: Volume of official development assistance flows for scholarships by sector and type of study

For Target 4.c;

12). Indicator 4.c.1: Proportion of teachers with the minimum required qualifications, by education level


Sustainable Development Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

sdg 5

The Sustainable Development Goal 5 (or SDG 5) is concerned with gender equality.


1). About 750 million women and girls across the globe were married before the age of 18

2). There has been a drop in the rate of subjection of girls between ages 15-19 in Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). However, there at least 200 million women and girls across 30 countries of the world, who have been subjected to this procedure

3). One-fifth of women and girls experience violence (physical and/or sexual) from an intimate partner within a period of twelve (12) months. This includes 19 percent of women and girls between the ages of 15 and 49

4). Legal rights exist in 18 countries, for husbands to prevent their wives from working. In 49 countries, there are no laws protecting women from domestic violence.

5). Women constitute less than 13 percent of agricultural land owners globally.

6). More than 30 percent of seats in national parliament (within one chamber at least) in 46 countries are held by women

7). Tracking of allocations for gender equality has been taken up in more than 100 countries

8). Approximately 66 percent of adults who cannot read are women

9). In spite of the strides made by women in politics, worldwide, they constitute only 23.7 percent of national parliament members. Women also serve as Heads of State in about 11 countries

Gender Equality had been identified as a necessity for the development of a sustainable society. Based on the available data, it can be said that the efforts to achieve gender equality have been leading to significant progress in this endeavor.

Targets of the SDG 5 are as follows;

1). Target 5.1: End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere

2). Target 5.2: Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation

3). Target 5.3: Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation

4). Target 5.4: Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate

5). Target 5.5: Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life

6). Target 5.6: Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences

7). Target 5.a: Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws

8). Target 5.b: Enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of women

9). Target 5.c: Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels


The following are used to measure progress of achieving the goal of gender equality;

For Target 5.1;

1). Indicator 5.1.1: Whether or not legal frameworks are in place to promote, enforce and monitor equality and non-discrimination on the basis of sex

For Target 5.2;

2). Indicator 5.2.1: Proportion of ever-partnered women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to physical, sexual or psychological violence by a current or former intimate partner in the previous 12 months, by form of violence and by age

3). Indicator 5.2.2: Proportion of women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to sexual violence by persons other than an intimate partner in the previous 12 months, by age and place of occurrence

For Target 5.3;

4). Indicator 5.3.1: Proportion of women aged 20–24 years who were married or in a union before age 15 and before age 18

5). Indicator 5.3.2: Proportion of girls and women aged 15–49 years who have undergone female genital mutilation/cutting, by age

For Target 5.4;

6). Indicator 5.4.1: Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic and care work, by sex, age and location

For Target 5.5;

7). Indicator 5.5.1: Proportion of seats held by women in (a) national parliaments and (b) local governments

8). Indicator 5.5.2: Proportion of women in managerial positions

For Target 5.6;

9). Indicator 5.6.1: Proportion of women aged 15–49 years who make their own informed decisions regarding sexual relations, contraceptive use and reproductive health care

10). Indicator 5.6.2: Number of countries with laws and regulations that guarantee full and equal access to women and men aged 15 years and older to sexual and reproductive health care, information and education

For Target 5.a;

11). Indicator 5.a.1: (a) Proportion of total agricultural population with ownership or secure rights over agricultural land, by sex; and (b) share of women among owners or rights-bearers of agricultural land, by type of tenure

12). Indicator 5.a.2: Proportion of countries where the legal framework (including customary law) guarantees women’s equal rights to land ownership and/or control

For Target 5.b;

13). Indicator 5.b.1: Proportion of individuals who own a mobile telephone, by sex

For Target 5.c;

14). Indicator 5.c.1: Proportion of countries with systems to track and make public allocations for gender equality and women’s empowerment


Some measures which have been selected to be used in the efforts to achieve gender equality (SDG 5) include;

-Fostering equal rights to economic resources

-Property ownership and financial services for women

-Promoting empowerment of women through technology

-Adopting, strengthening policies and enforcing legislation for gender equality.

The recent COVID-19 outbreak is said to have had negative effects on the agenda for women’s rights and gender equality [5]. Women have also been observed to be inadequately represented in the response to the virus, within the healthcare sector and beyond. These all imply that a more strategic approach is needed, if the goal of gender equality is to be achieved.


Sustainable Development Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

sdg 6

The main focus of the SDG 6 is to ensure that sanitation and clean water are both available to all.


1). Roughly one-third of all the human population do not have access to safe and sustainable drinking water services

2). About three-fifth of the human population lack access to safe and well-managed sanitation services

3). One-fourth of health care facilities around the world, do not have the needed water services

4). There has been an increase in the percentage of the human population with access to an improved water source. This increase is from about 76 percent in 1990 to 90 percent in 2015 [7]

5). Open defecation is still practiced by more than 10 percent of the human population

6). Above 40 percent of the human population are affected by water shortages. Given the present conditions, this number is likely to increase.

7). Almost 1,000 child deaths occur daily as a result of preventable illnesses related to poor sanitation and polluted water usage

8). Over 80 percent of wastewater from human activities, is discharged into water bodies without treatment

9). About 70 percent of abstracted water from aquifers, lakes and rivers, is utilized for irrigation purposes

10). Nearly one-third of the global human population lacks access to basic sanitation facilities such as latrines and toilets


1). Target 6.1: Safe and affordable drinking water

2). Target 6.2: End open defecation and provide access to sanitation and hygiene

3). Target 6.3: Improve water quality, wastewater treatment and safe reuse

4). Target 6.4: Increase water-use efficiency and ensure freshwater supplies

5). Target 6.5: Implement IWRM

6). Target 6.6: Protect and restore water-related ecosystems

7). Target 6.a: Expand water and sanitation support to developing countries

8). Target 6.b: Support local engagement in water and sanitation management


The indicators of progress in achieving the targets are as follows;

For Target 6.1;

1). Indicator 6.1.1: Proportion of population using safely managed drinking water services

For Target 6.2;

2). Indicator 6.2.1: Proportion of population using (a) safely managed sanitation services and (b) a hand-washing facility with soap and water

For Target 6.3;

3). Indicator 6.3.1: Proportion of domestic and industrial wastewater flows safely treated

4). Indicator 6.3.2: Proportion of bodies of water with good ambient water quality

For Target 6.4;

5). Indicator 6.4.1: Change in water-use efficiency over time

6). Indicator 6.4.2: Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources

For Target 6.5;

7). Indicator 6.5.1 Degree of integrated water resources management

8). Indicator 6.5.2 Proportion of trans-boundary basin area with an operational arrangement for water cooperation

For Target 6.6;

9). It has one indicator: Indicator 6.6.1 is the “Change in the extent of water-related ecosystems over time

For Target 6.a;

10). Indicator 6.a.1: Amount of water- and sanitation-related official development assistance that is part of a government-coordinated spending plan


Some measures which have been selected, to be used in achieving the targets of SDG 6, include;

-Supporting local engagement in sanitation and water management

-Expand sanitation and water support to developing nations

By causing social and economic challenges, the COVID-19 outbreak has affected the capacity of water and sanitation services to meet the needs of the living populace. The pandemic has also shown the importance of access to clean water, hygiene and sanitation to prevent diseases and preserve public health [12].

Recently, attention has also been drawn to the inadequacy of funding for sanitation and water-supply infrastructure. Providing adequate funding and support in these areas, will go a long way to help in achieving the set targets.


Sustainable Development Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

sdg 7

Sustainable Development Goal 7 (or SDG 7) aims to provide sustainable energy to the entire human population.


1). About 13 percent of the global population has no access to modern electricity. This includes up to 3 billion people who rely on coal and wood for heating and cooking

2). While there has been much progress in the efforts to achieve the SDG 7, more effort and attention are required to improve access to safe and clean energy, so as to meet the needs of the population

3). The energy sector contributes up to 60 percent to the cause of Global Warming and Climate Change. There has been an increase by almost 46 percent, in the amount of CO2 being emitted into the atmosphere compared to the year 1990

4). Solar energy technology has experienced the fastest rate of growth across the globe. It is predicted that sola will constitute up to 48 percent of renewable energy supply in the United States by the year 2050


1). Target 7.1: By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services

2). Target 7.2: By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix

3). Target 7.3: By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency

4). Target 7.a: By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology

5). Target 7.b: By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States, and land-locked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programs of support


For Target 7.1;

1). Indicator 7.1.1: Percentage of population with access to electricity

2). Indicator 7.1.2: Proportion of population with primary reliance on clean fuels and technology

For Target 7.2;

3). Indicator 7.2.1: Renewable energy share in the total final energy consumption

For Target 7.3;

4). Indicator 7.3.1: Energy intensity measured in terms of primary energy and GDP

For Target 7.a;

5). Indicator 7.a.1: Mobilized amount of United States dollars per year starting in 2020 accountable towards the $100 billion commitment

For Target 7.b;

6). Indicator 7.b.1: Investments in energy efficiency as a percentage of GDP and the amount of foreign direct investment in financial transfer for infrastructure and technology to sustainable development services


The measures which are being applied toward achieving the targets of SDG 7 include;

-Enhance international collaboration for the development and accessibility of clean energy technology

-Promote and support research and development in clean energy

-Upgrade and expand energy facilities in developing countries

-Improve energy efficiency, especially for clean energy technologies

-Provide infrastructural support for clean energy development initiatives and related projects


Sustainable Development Goal 8: Foster sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all

sdg 8


The Sustainable Development Goal 8 (or SDG 8) is concerned solely with economic growth and decent working conditions.


1). About 172 million people across the world were unemployed in the year 2018. This is less than the number (204 million) who were unemployed in 2015

2). The last two decades has seen a serious decline in the number of workers living in conditions of extreme poverty. This is in spite of numerous series of economic recessions across the globe

3). It is projected that the unemployed population will rise by a least 1 million people per year

4). In 2018, about 700 million workers lived in extreme poverty

5). To keep in pace with the working-age population, at least 600 million new jobs will need to be created by the year 2030

It is believed that the most effective approach to achieve the targets of the SDG 8 will involve social and economic restructuring, part of which are entrepreneurship, eradication of forced or unhealthy labor, and job creation.


1). Target 8.1: Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries

2). Target 8.2: Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labor-intensive sectors

3). Target 8.3: Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services

4). Target 8.4: Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavor to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10‑Year Framework of Programs on Sustainable Consumption and Production, with developed countries taking the lead

5). Target 8.5: By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value

6). Target 8.6: By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training

7). Target 8.7: Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labor, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labor, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labor in all its forms

8). Target 8.8: Protect labor rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment

9). Target 8.9: By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products

10). Target 8.10: Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and expand access to banking, insurance and financial services for all

11). Target 8.a: Increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries

12). Target 8.b: By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labor Organization


For Target 8.1;

1). Indicator 8.1.1: Annual growth rate of real GDP per capita

For Target 8.2;

2). Indicator 8.2.1: Annual growth rate of real GDP per employed person

For Target 8.3;

3). Indicator 8.3.1: Proportion of informal employment in total employment, by sector and sex

For Target 8.4;

4). Indicator 8.4.1: Material footprint, material footprint per capita, and material footprint per GDP

5). Indicator 8.4.2: Domestic material consumption, domestic material consumption per capita, and domestic material consumption per GDP

For Target 8.5;

6). Indicator 8.5.1: Average hourly earnings of employees, by sex, age, occupation and persons with disabilities

7). Indicator 8.5.2: Unemployment rate, by sex, age and persons with disabilities

For Target 8.6;

8). Indicator 8.6.1: Proportion of youth (aged 15–24 years) not in education, employment or training

For Target 8.7;

9). Indicator 8.7.1: Proportion and number of children aged 5–17 years engaged in child labor, by sex and age

For Target 8.8;

10). Indicator 8.8.1: Fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries per 100,000 workers, by sex and migrant status

11). Indicator 8.8.2: Level of national compliance with labor rights (freedom of association and collective bargaining) based on International Labor Organization (ILO) textual sources and national legislation, by sex and migrant status

For Target 8.9;

12). Indicator 8.9.1: Tourism direct GDP as a proportion of total GDP and in growth rate

For Target 8.10;

13). Indicator 8.10.1: (a) Number of commercial bank branches per 100,000 adults and (b) number of automated teller machines (ATMs) per 100,000 adults

14). Indicator 8.10.2: Proportion of adults (15 years and older) with an account at a bank or other financial institution or with a mobile-money-service provider

For Target 8.a;

15). Indicator 8.a.1: Aid for Trade commitments and disbursements

For Target 8.b;

16). Indicator 8.b.1: Existence of a developed and operationalized national strategy for youth employment, as a distinct strategy or as part of a national employment strategy


Sustainable Development Goal 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

sdg 9

The Sustainable Development Goal 9 (Goal 9 or SDG 9) is concerned with industry, innovation and infrastructural development.


1). About 16 percent of the total human population lacks access to mobile broadband networks

2). Countries with the lowest level of development have been found to have high industrialization potential, especially in the area of agricultural production, with good employment and productivity prospects

3). In the year 2018, about 96 percent of the global population lived within the reach of mobile cellular signals

4). Currently, the rate of adoption and development of renewable energy in developing countries is higher than the rate in developed countries

5). The pace of manufacturing is increasing rapidly, especially in Asian countries. This has led to a rapid rise in the GDP value of the manufacturing sector on a global level

6). The year 2019 saw an addition of over 184 gigawatts of power from renewable technologies such as solar and wind


1). Target 9.1: Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and trans-border infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all

2). Target 9.2: Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries

3). Target 9.4: By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities

4). Target 9.a: Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States

5). Target 9.b: Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities

6). Target 9c: Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020


For Target 9.1;

1). Indicator 9.1.1: Proportion of the rural population who live within 2 km of an all-season road

2). Indicator 9.1.2: Passenger and freight volumes, by mode of transport

For Target 9.2;

3). Indicator 9.2.1: Manufacturing value added as a proportion of GDP and per capita

4). Indicator 9.2.2: Manufacturing employment as a proportion of total employment

For Target 9.3;

5). Indicator 9.3.1: Proportion of small-scale industries in total industry value added

6). Indicator 9.3.2: Proportion of small-scale industries with a loan or line of credit

For Target 9.4;

7). Indicator 9.4.1: CO2 emissions per unit of value added

For Target 9.5;

8). Indicator 9.5.1: Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP”

9). Indicator 9.5.2: Number of Researchers (in full-time equivalent) per million inhabitants”

For Target 9.a;

10). Indicator 9.a.1: Total official international support (official development assistance plus other official flows) to infrastructure

For Target 9.b;

11). Indicator 9.b.1: Proportion of medium and high-tech industry value added in total value added

For Target 9.c;

12). Indicator 9.c.1: Proportion of population covered by a mobile network, by technology


The importance of innovation, infrastructure and industrialization, lies in the fact that these factors are required in order to achieve sustainable economic growth and generate employment opportunities. Additionally, they are capable of facilitating the promotion of new technologies, while enabling the conservation of resources and improving international trade relations.

Manufacturing companies around the world have been affected severely by the COVID-19 pandemic. This has caused disruptions in the supply chains of the global manufacturing sector.

In order to meet the targets for SDG 9, efforts are required in the manufacturing sector; especially in the less-developed nations of the world. Such efforts would include research and development, and technological implementation.


Sustainable Development Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries

sdg 10

The main focus of the Sustainable Development Goal 10 (or SDG 10) is to reduce social inequality at both the local and international levels of our society.


1). Women are more likely to live below the median income level than men

2). Study has shown that children from the poorest households are up to three times more vulnerable to death before their fifth year, than children from the richest households

3). Women in rural regions have up to three times more likelihood of death while giving birth, than women in urban regions. This is in spite of the efforts made so far, and the drop in overall number of maternal deaths worldwide

4). One-tenth of children on Earth are disabled

5). In spite of the global adoption of social protection, disabled people have much more likelihood to incur huge expenses on healthcare

6). Up to 80 percent of disabled people around the world live in developing countries

7). Globally, no more than 28 percent of the disabled population have access to social benefits for the disabled. Out of this 28 percent, about 1 percent live on low-income countries


1). Target 10.1: By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average

2). Target 10.2: By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status

3). Target 10.3: Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard

4). Target 10.4: Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality

5). Target 10.5: Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations

6). Target 10.6: Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions

7). Target 10.7: Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies

8). Target 10.a: Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements

9). Target 10.b: Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programs

10). Target 10.c: By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent


For Target 10.1;

1). Indicator 10.1.1: Growth rates of household expenditure or income per capita among the bottom 40 per cent of the population and the total population

For Target 10.2;

2). Indicator 10.2.1: Proportion of people living below 50 per cent of median income, by sex, age and persons with disabilities

For Target 10.3;

3). Indicator 10.3.1: Proportion of population reporting having personally felt discriminated against or harassed in the previous 12 months on the basis of a ground of discrimination prohibited under international human rights law

For Target 10.4;

4). Indicator 10.4.1: Labor share of GDP, comprising wages and social protection transfers

For Target 10.5;

5). Indicator 10.5.1: Financial soundness indicator

For Target 10.6;

6). Indicator 10.6.1: Proportion of members and voting rights of developing countries in international organizations

For Target 10.7;

7). Indicator 10.7.1: Recruitment cost borne by employee as a proportion of yearly income earned in country of destination

8). Indicator 10.7.2: Number of countries that have implemented well-managed migration policies

For Target 10.a;

9). Indicator 10.a.1: Proportion of tariff lines applied to imports from least developed countries and developing countries with zero-tariff

For Target 10.b;

10). Indicator 10.b.1: Total resource flows for development, by recipient and donor countries and type of flow

For Target 10.c;

11). Indicator 10.c.1: Remittance costs as a proportion of the amount remitted


Sustainable Development Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities

The Sustainable Development Goal 11 (or SDG 11) is concerned with the development of sustainable infrastructure at the community level. Its purpose is to “Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable” [14].


1). By the year 2050, at the current rate of urbanization and migration, at least 6,5 billion people (or two-thirds of the human population) will reside in urban areas

2). Sustainable city development will produce numerous career opportunities, while providing affordable and safe housing, and establishing economic and social resilience

3). Urbanization is increasing rapidly across the world, and is often accompanied by economic inflation which reflects in the form of poverty, crime and homelessness, among others. Slums have also become very common, accommodating more than 828 billion people

4). The number of people living in urban areas around the world in 2018 was roughly 4.2 billion (or 55 percent of global population)

5). The coming decades will see most of the urban expansion (up to 90 percent) occurring in the developing countries of the world

6). Urban areas are estimated to produce between 60 and 80 percent of global GDP. While these areas occupy only about 3 percent of the total land area on Earth, they account for roughly 70 percent of carbon emissions and 80 percent of energy consumption

7). The rapid trend of urbanization has negative effects because it leads to unsustainable industrial practices that cause environmental degradation and affect public health


1). Target 11.1: By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums

2). Target 11.2: By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons

3). Target 11.3: By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries

4). Target 11.4: Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage

5). Target 11.5: By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations

6). Target 11.6: By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management

7). Target 11.7: By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities

8). Target 11.a: Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning

9). Target 11.b: By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels

10). Target 11.c: Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials


For Target 11.1;

1). Indicator 11.1.1: Proportion of urban population living in slums, informal settlements or inadequate housing

For Target 11.2;

2). Indicator 11.2.1: Proportion of population that has convenient access to public transport, by sex, age and persons with disabilities

For Target 11.3;

3). Indicator 11.3.1: Ratio of land consumption rate to population growth rate

4). Indicator 11.3.2: Proportion of cities with a direct participation structure of civil society in urban planning and management that operate regularly and democratically

For Target 11.4;

5). Indicator 11.4.1: Total per capita expenditure on the preservation, protection and conservation of all cultural and natural heritage, by source of funding (public, private), type of heritage (cultural, natural) and level of government (national, regional, and local/municipal)

For Target 11.5;

6). Indicator 11.5.1: Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population

7). Indicator 11.5.2: Direct economic loss in relation to global GDP, damage to critical infrastructure and number of disruptions to basic services, attributed to disasters

For Target 11.6;

8). Indicator 11.6.1: Proportion of municipal solid waste collected and managed in controlled facilities out of total municipal waste generated, by cities

9). Indicator 11.6.2: Annual mean levels of fine particulate matter (e.g. PM2.5 and PM10) in cities (population weighted)

For Target 11.7;

10). Indicator 11.7.1: Average share of the built-up area of cities that is open space for public use for all, by sex, age and persons with disabilities

11). Indicator 11.7.2: Proportion of persons victim of physical or sexual harassment, by sex, age, disability status and place of occurrence, in the previous 12 months

For Target 11.a;

12). Indicator 11.a.1: Number of countries that have national urban policies or regional development plans that (a) respond to population dynamics; (b) ensure balanced territorial development; and (c) increase local fiscal space

For Target 11.b;

13). Indicator 11.b.1: Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030

14). Indicator 11.b.2: Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies

For Target 11.c;

15). Indicator 11.c.1: Proportion of financial support to the least developed countries that is allocated to the construction and retrofitting of sustainable, resilient and resource-efficient buildings utilizing local materials

Like most other social conditions, the COVID-19 pandemic led to severe economic challenges in urban areas, especially in the highly populated regions. This has shown that sustainable development must be at the center of urbanization, to prevent such problems.

The measures to achieve the targets of this goal include;

-Disaster risk assessment and reduction

-Regional and national planning

-Inclusion and resource efficiency policies

-Economic resiliency planning


Sustainable Development Goal 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

The Sustainable Development Goal 12 (or SDG 12) is concerned with improving the patterns of production and consumption and ensuring that both are sustainable.

This goal aims at ensuring that resources are used in a sustainable manner, and infrastructural development as well as energy efficiency, are both optimised.


1). Environment degradation has accompanied economic development in recent decades, and this has made the process of production and consumption to be unsustainable, in general

2). Production and Consumption rely mainly on how resources in our natural environment are used

3). About $120 billion will be saved on an annual basis, if energy efficient light bulbs are used around the world

4). Based on projections with regards go population growth; by the year 2050, at least thrice the amount of available resources on Earth today, will be required in order to meet the needs of the human population

5). About one-third of all food produced yearly, is wasted. This amounts to at least 1.3 billion tons of food, and is worth about $1 trillion

6). Over 90 percent of the largest companies in the world have pledged support for sustainable development in their production approach

7). Safe water for drinking constitutes less than 3 percent of the total water resources on Earth. About 2.5 of this water occurs in frozen state, leaving only the remaining 0.5 percent available for consumption

8). The rate of pollution of natural water resources is far higher than the natural rate of recycling and purification

9). Since the 1980s, global demand for water has been increasing by about 1 percent per year

10). The excessive use of water globally, has placed much stress on the availability of this resource. More than 1 billion people currently have no access to clean and safe water

11). More than 40 percent of natural disasters over the last few decades have been caused by flooding

12). Almost 30 percent of all energy produced globally, is consumed by households. These households also contribute at least 21 percent of all carbon emissions

13). The rate of electrification, globally, was up to 89 percent as at the year 2017

14). Problems of environmental pollution and unsustainable practices have reduced the capacity of the soil and marine systems to produce food

15). Irrigation and agriculture as a whole, consumes at least 70 percent of freshwater resources on Earth

16). About 30 percent of all energy produced on Earth is used by the food sector. The same also releases at least 22 percent of greenhouse emissions


1). Target 12.1: Implement the 10‑Year Framework of Programs on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries

2). Target 12.2: By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources

3). Target 12.3: By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses

4). Target 12.4: By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment

5). Target 12.5: By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse

6). Target 12.6: Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle

7). Target 12.7: Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities

8). Target 12.8: By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature

9). Target 12.a: Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production

10). Target 12.b: Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products

11). Target 12.c: Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities


For Target 12.1;

1). Indicator 12.1.1: Number of countries developing, adopting or implementing policy instruments aimed at supporting the shift to sustainable consumption and production

For Target 12.2;

2). Indicator 12.2.1: Material footprint, material footprint per capita, and material footprint per GDP

3). Indicator 12.2.2: Domestic material consumption, domestic material consumption per capita, and domestic material consumption per GDP

For Target 12.3;

4). Indicator 12.3.1: (a) Food loss index and (b) food waste index

For Target 12.4;

5). Indicator 12.4.1: Number of parties to international multilateral environmental agreements on hazardous waste, and other chemicals that meet their commitments and obligations in transmitting information as required by each relevant agreement

6). Indicator 12.4.2: (a) Hazardous waste generated per capita; and (b) proportion of hazardous waste treated, by type of treatment

For Target 12.5;

7). Indicator 12.5.1: National recycling rate, tons of material recycled

For Target 12.6;

8). Indicator 12.6.1: Number of companies publishing sustainability reports

For Target 12.7;

9). Indicator 12.7.1: Degree of sustainable public procurement policies and action plan implementation

For Target 12.8;

10). Indicator 12.8.1: Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development are mainstreamed in (a) national education policies; (b) curricula; (c) teacher education; and (d) student assessment

For Target 12.a;

11). Indicator 12.a.1: Installed renewable energy-generating capacity in developing countries (in watts per capita)

For Target 12.b;

12). Indicator 12.b.1: Implementation of standard accounting tools to monitor the economic and environmental aspects of tourism sustainability

For Target 12.c;

13). Indicator 12.c.1: Amount of fossil-fuel subsidies (production and consumption) per unit of GDP


Some measures which have been selected to be used in achieving the targets of SDG 12 include;

-Develop and implement tools for monitoring the impacts of sustainable development

-Support developing nations to strengthen their technological and scientific capacity

-Eliminate market distortions that encourage wasteful consumption of resources, such as subsidies on fossil fuels


Sustainable Development Goal 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

sdg 13

The Sustainable Development Goal 13 (or SDG 13) involves efforts to mitigate climate change, mainly by addressing its causes.


1). Climate Change and its effects occur in all countries and regions of the world

2). In 2019, greenhouse gases in the atmosphere exceeded all formerly recorded levels. Also, 2019 marked the end of the warmest decade ever measured

3). The COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdown, resulted in a decline in the volume of atmospheric greenhouse gases. However, this decline was temporary

4). In 2015, the Paris Agreement was signed in a bid to strengthen efforts in the fight against Climate Change. The agreement seeks to ensure that Global Warming and temperature rise is restricted to less than 2°C

5). Effects of Climate Change include sea level rise, ice melting and decline in crop yield. The average rise in sea level between 1901and 2010 is estimated to be about 19 cm. Also, there is a loss of at least 1.07 million km² of ice in the Arctic every decade

6). Average global temperature is estimated to have risen by about 0.85°C between 1880 and 2012. This has led to a decline by at least 4 percent in grain crop production

7). Since the year 1990, carbon emissions have increased by nearly 50 percent at the global level


1). Target 13.1: Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries

2). Target 13.2: Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning

3). Target 13.3: Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning

4). Target 13.a: Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible

5). Target 13.b: Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities


For Target 13.1;

1). Indicator 13.1.1: Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population

2). Indicator 13.1.2: Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030

3). Indicator 13.1.3: Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies

For Target 13.2;

4). Indicator 13.2.1: Number of countries with nationally determined contributions, long-term strategies, national adaptation plans and adaptation communications, as reported to the secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

5). Indicator 13.2.2: Total greenhouse gas emissions per year

For Target 13.3;

6). Indicator 13.3.1: Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development are mainstreamed in (a) national education policies; (b) curricula; (c) teacher education; and (d) student assessment

For Target 13.a;

7). Indicator 13.a.1: Amounts provided and mobilized in United States dollars per year in relation to the continued existing collective mobilization goal of the $100 billion commitment through to 2025

For Target 13.b;

8). Indicator 13.b.1: Number of least developed countries and small island developing States with nationally determined contributions, long-term strategies, national adaptation plans and adaptation communications, as reported to the secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change


The global efforts toward mitigating Climate Change are assessed by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Some measures which have been selected for addressing Climate Change include;

-Promoting mechanisms to raise the capacity for management and planning

-Implementing the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change


Sustainable Development Goal 14: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

sdg 14

The major focus of Sustainable Development Goal 14 (or SDG 14) is the sustainable use, and conservation of marine resources.


1). Oceans reduce the potential effects of Global Warming by absorbing up to 30 percent of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced as a result of human activities

2). More than 3 billion people depend on the marine system for their livelihood

3). Over 90 percent of excessive hear on Earth is absorbed by oceans

4). More than 200 people are employed indirectly or directly by marine fisheries

5). At least 80 percent of marine pollution is caused by processes occurring on land. Such processes include the discharge of industrial effluents and untreated sewage, as well as mining and drilling activities

6). About 680 million people currently live in coastal regions. This number is expected to rise drastically in coming years


1). Target 14.1: By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution

2). Target 14.2: By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans

3). Target 14.3: Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels

4). Target 14.4: By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics

5). Target 14.5: By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information

6), Target 14.6: By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation4

7). Target 14.7: By 2030, increase the economic benefits to small island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism

8). Target 14.a: Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries

9). Target 14.b: Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets

10). Target 14.c: Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing international law as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of “The future we want”


For Target 14.1;

1). Indicator 14.1.1: (a) Index of coastal eutrophication; and (b) plastic debris density

For Target 14.2;

2). Indicator 14.2.1: Number of countries using ecosystem-based approaches to managing marine areas

For Target 14.3;

3). Indicator 14.3.1: Average marine acidity (pH) measured at agreed suite of representative sampling stations

For Target 14.4;

4). Indicator 14.4.1: Proportion of fish stocks within biologically sustainable levels

For Target 14.5;

5). Indicator 14.5.1: Coverage of protected areas in relation to marine areas

For Target 14.6;

6). Indicator 14.6.1: Degree of implementation of international instruments aiming to combat illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing

For Target 14.7;

7). Indicator 14.7.1: Sustainable fisheries as a proportion of GDP in small island developing States, least developed countries and all countries

For Target 14.a;

8). Indicator 14.a.1: Proportion of total research budget allocated to research in the field of marine technology

For Target 14.b;

9). Indicator 14.b.1: Degree of application of a legal/regulatory/ policy/institutional framework which recognizes and protects access rights for small-scale fisheries

For Target 14.c;

10). Indicator 14.c.1: Number of countries making progress in ratifying, accepting and implementing through legal, policy and institutional frameworks, ocean-related instruments that implement international law, as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, for the conservation and sustainable use of the oceans and their resources


The measures which have been selected for achieving the targets of SDG 14 include;

-Support of small-scale fishing and fish farming

-Increase in scientific knowledge, technology and research

-Enforcement and Implementation of International Sea Law


Sustainable Development Goal 15: Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss

sdg 15

The Sustainable Development Goal 15 (or SDG 15) is concerned with the conservation of Life on land.


1). Nearly 30 percent of the Earth’s surface is covered by forests. The vegetation in these areas is essential in helping fight climate change and Global Warming

2). Land degradation also affects forests. Up to 74 percent of poor communities are negatively impacted as a result

3). At least 80 percent of terrestrial flora and fauna on Earth occur in forests. This implies that deforestation has serious consequences for biodiversity

4). On the average, thirteen million hectares of forest land each year, are lost. The causes include deforestation, desertification and degradation

5). Almost 3.6 billion hectares of non-forest land are degraded every year

6). Due to unethical practices, about 22 percent of animals on Earth are facing the risk of extinction

7). At least 52 percent of agricultural land on Earth have experienced degradation

8). Yearly, 12 million hectares of land are lost to desertification and drought alone

9). More than 80 percent of the human diet is composed of plants

10). Less than 1 percent of existing tree species have been studied to determine their potential uses

11). Up to 60 percent of energy intake is supplied by maize, wheat and rice

12). About 1.6 billion people on Earth rely on forests for their livelihood

13). Up to 80 percent of rural dwellers on developing nations, depend on herbal (or plant-based) medicines for their basic healthcare needs


1). Target 15.1: By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements

2). Target 15.2: By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally

3). Target 15.3: By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world

4). Target 15.4: By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development

5). Target 15.5: Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species

6). Target 15.6: Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed

7). Target 15.7: Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products

8). Target 15.8: By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species

9). Target 15.9: By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts

10). Target 15.a: Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems

11). Target 15.b: Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation

12). Target 15.c: Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities


For Target 15.1;

1). Indicator 15.1.1: Forest area as a proportion of total land area

2). Indicator 15.1.2: Proportion of important sites for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, by ecosystem type

For Target 15.2;

3). Indicator 15.2.1: Progress towards sustainable forest management

For Target 15.3;

4). Indicator 15.3.1: Proportion of land that is degraded over total land area

For Target 15.4;

5). Indicator 15.4.1: Coverage by protected areas of important sites for mountain biodiversity

6). Indicator 15.4.2: Mountain Green Cover Index

For Target 15.5;

7). Indicator 15.5.1: Red List Index

For Target 15.6;

8). Indicator 15.6.1: Number of countries that have adopted legislative, administrative and policy frameworks to ensure fair and equitable sharing of benefits

For Target 15.7;

9). Indicator 15.7.1: Proportion of traded wildlife that was poached or illicitly trafficked

For Target 15.8;

10). Indicator 15.8.1: Proportion of countries adopting relevant national legislation and adequately resourcing the prevention or control of invasive alien species

For Target 15.9;

11). Indicator 15.9.1: (a) Number of countries that have established national targets in accordance with or similar to Aichi Biodiversity Target 2 of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 in their national biodiversity strategy and action plans and the progress reported towards these targets; and (b) integration of biodiversity into national accounting and reporting systems, defined as implementation of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting

For Target 15.a;

12). Indicator 15.a.1: (a) Official development assistance on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity; and (b) revenue generated and finance mobilized from biodiversity-relevant economic instruments

For Target 15.b;

13). Indicator 15.b.1: (a) Official development assistance on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity; and (b) revenue generated and finance mobilized from biodiversity-relevant economic instruments

For Target 15.c;

14). Indicator 15.c.1: Proportion of traded wildlife that was poached or illicitly trafficked


The measures which have been chosen in order to meet the targets of SDG 15 include;

-Increase financial resources to conserve and sustainably use ecosystem and biodiversity

-Finance and incentivize sustainable forest management

-Combat global poaching and trafficking


Sustainable Development Goal 16: Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

sdg 16, sustainable development goals

The aim of the Sustainable Development Goal 16 (or SDG 16) is to establish Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions.


1). The police and the judiciary are among the most corrupt institutions globally

2). Sustainable development efforts so far have been greatly affected by weak institutions, insecurity and conflict

3). About 30 enforced disappearances and 357 killings of trade unionists, journalists and human rights activists were recorded by the United Nations across 47 countries in the year 2019

4). More than 70 people were recorded among those fleeing from humanitarian crises in the year 2018

5). One-fourth of children born worldwide are undocumented. This makes them vulnerable to abuse as they have no legal proof of identity to protect their rights as humans

6). No more than 46 percent of the human population in Sub-Saharan Africa are documented and have legal identity

7). Up to $1.26 trillion is lost from developing countries per year, due to tax evasion, corruption, theft and bribery [9]

8). Over the last decade, at least 31 percent of all prisoners across the world have been in detention without sentencing

9). On the average, 28.5 million children in conflict-impacted regions of the world, are out of school

10). More than 1 billion children worldwide are affected by violence. Also, issues of violence against children cause expenditure of up to $7 trillion per annum

11). One-tenth of all children globally. experience some form of sexual abuse before the age of eighteen (18)

12). At least 50 percent of the child population in the world experience violence per year

13). At least one child is killed by violence every seven minutes, somewhere in the world

14). An average of 45 million children were victims of online violence in 2018

15). It is estimated that at least 68.5 million people had been displaced due to human rights violations, violence and persecution, by the end of 2017 [4]

16). At least 1 billion people, including 625 million children in the world have no legal proof of identity

17). At least 10 million stateless individuals have been denied nationality along with its associated civil rights


1). Target 16.1: Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere

2). Target 16.2: End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children

3). Target 16.3: Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all

4). Target 16.4: By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime

5). Target 16.5: Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms

6). Target 16.6: Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels

7). Target 16.7: Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels

8). Target 16.8: Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance

9). Target 16.9: By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration

10). Target 16.10: Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements

11). Target 16.a: Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime

12). Target 16.b: Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development


For Target 16.1;

1). Indicator 16.1.1: Number of victims of intentional homicide per 100,000 population, by sex and age

2). Indicator 16.1.2: Conflict-related deaths per 100,000 population, by sex, age and cause

3). Indicator 16.1.3: Proportion of population subjected to (a) physical violence, (b) psychological violence and (c) sexual violence in the previous 12 months

4). Indicator 16.1.4: Proportion of population that feel safe walking alone around the area they live

For Target 16.2;

5). Indicator 16.2.1: Proportion of children aged 1–17 years who experienced any physical punishment and/or psychological aggression by caregivers in the past month

6). Indicator 16.2.2: Number of victims of human trafficking per 100,000 population, by sex, age and form of exploitation

7). Indicator 16.2.3: Proportion of young women and men aged 18–29 years who experienced sexual violence by age 18

For Target 16.3;

8). Indicator 16.3.1: Proportion of victims of violence in the previous 12 months who reported their victimization to competent authorities or other officially recognized conflict resolution mechanisms

9). Indicator 16.3.2: Un-sentenced detainees as a proportion of overall prison population

10). Indicator 16.3.3: Proportion of the population who have experienced a dispute in the past two years and who accessed a formal or informal dispute resolution mechanism, by type of mechanism

For Target 16.4;

11). Indicator 16.4.1: Total value of inward and outward illicit financial flows (in current United States dollars)

12). Indicator 16.4.2: Proportion of seized, found or surrendered arms whose illicit origin or context has been traced or established by a competent authority in line with international instruments

For Target 16.5;

13). Indicator 16.5.1: Proportion of persons who had at least one contact with a public official and who paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials, during the previous 12 months

14). Indicator 16.5.2: Proportion of businesses that had at least one contact with a public official and that paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials during the previous 12 months

For Target 16.6;

15). Indicator 16.6.1: Primary government expenditures as a proportion of original approved budget, by sector (or by budget codes or similar)

16). Indicator 16.6.2: Proportion of population satisfied with their last experience of public services

For Target 16.7;

17). Indicator 16.7.1: Proportions of positions in national and local institutions, including (a) the legislatures; (b) the public service; and (c) the judiciary, compared to national distributions, by sex, age, persons with disabilities and population groups

18). Indicator 16.7.2: Proportion of population who believe decision-making is inclusive and responsive, by sex, age, disability and population group

For Target 16.8;

19). Indicator 16.8.1: Proportion of members and voting rights of developing countries in international organizations

For Target 16.9;

20). Indicator 16.9.1: Proportion of children under 5 years of age whose births have been registered with a civil authority, by age

For Target 16.10;

21). Indicator 16.10.1: Number of verified cases of killing, kidnapping, enforced disappearance, arbitrary detention and torture of journalists, associated media personnel, trade unionists and human rights advocates in the previous 12 months

22). Indicator 16.10.2: Number of countries that adopt and implement constitutional, statutory and/or policy guarantees for public access to information

For Target 16.a;

23). Indicator 16.a.1: Existence of independent national human rights institutions in compliance with the Paris Principles

For Target 16.b;

24). Indicator 16.b.1: Proportion of population reporting having personally felt discriminated against or harassed in the previous 12 months on the basis of a ground of discrimination prohibited under international human rights law


The measures being implemented in order.to achieve the targets of SDG 16 include;

-Strengthen national institutions to prevent violence and combat crime and terrorism

-Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies


Sustainable Development Goals 17: Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

sdg 17

The Sustainable Development Goal 17 (or SDG 17) is designed to oversee and ensure that the first sixteen goals are achieved. As a result, it is simply termed; partnerships for the goals.


1). A net total of $147.4 billion was given by member countries of the Development Assistance Committee in 2019, for the support of sustainable development

2). The SDG 17 acknowledges the need for effective global cooperation and partnership in order to achieve the sustainable development targets

3). As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, in 2020, there was a global economic decline by at least 3 percent

4). In order to achieve the sustainable development goals, at least $5 to $7 trillion will be required per year, according to the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

5). International remittances of 2017 totaled about $613 billion. About 76 percent of this fund was disbursed to developing countries

6). At least $18.2 trillion was invested in sustainable development projects as of 2016


1). Target 17.1: Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection

2). Target 17.2: Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of gross national income for official development assistance (ODA/GNI) to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries; ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries

3). Target 17.3: Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources

4). Target 17.4: Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress

5). Target 17.5: Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries

6). Target 17.6: Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge-sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism

7). Target 17.7: Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favorable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed

8). Target 17.8: Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology

9). Target 17.9: Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the Sustainable Development Goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation

10). Target 17.10: Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non‑discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda

11). Target 17.11: Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020

12). Target 17.12: Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access

13). Target 17.13: Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence

14). Target 17.14: Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development

15). Target 17.15: Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development

16). Target 17.16: Enhance the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in all countries, in particular developing countries

17). Target 17.17: Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships

18). Target 17.18: By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts

19). Target 17.19: By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries


For Target 17.1;

1). Indicator 17.1.1: Total government revenue as a proportion of GDP, by source

2). Indicator 17.1.2: Proportion of domestic budget funded by domestic taxes

For Target 17.2;

3). Indicator 17.2.1: Net official development assistance, total and to least developed countries, as a proportion of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Committee donors’ gross national income (GNI)

For Target 17.3;

4). Indicator 17.3.1: Foreign direct investment, official development assistance and South-South cooperation as a proportion of gross national income

5). Indicator 17.3.2: Volume of remittances (in United States dollars) as a proportion of total GDP

For Target 17.4;

6). Indicator 17.4.1: Debt service as a proportion of exports of goods and services

For Target 17.5;

7). Indicator 17.5.1: Number of countries that adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for developing countries, including the least developed countries

For Target 17.6;

8). Indicator 17.6.1: Fixed Internet broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, by speed

For Target 17.7;

9). Indicator 17.7.1: Total amount of funding for developing countries to promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies

For Target 17.8;

10). Indicator 17.8.1: Proportion of individuals using the Internet

For Target 17.9;

11). Indicator 17.9.1: Dollar value of financial and technical assistance (including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation) committed to developing countries

For Target 17.10;

12). Indicator 17.10.1: Worldwide weighted tariff-average

For Target 17.11;

13). Indicator 17.11.1: Developing countries’ and least developed countries’ share of global exports

For Target 17.12;

14). Indicator 17.12.1: Weighted average tariffs faced by developing countries, least developed countries and small island developing States

For Target 17.13;

15). Indicator 17.13.1: Macroeconomic Dashboard

For Target 17.14;

16). Indicator 17.14.1: Number of countries with mechanisms in place to enhance policy coherence of sustainable development

For Target 17.15;

17). Indicator 17.15.1: Extent of use of country-owned results frameworks and planning tools by providers of development cooperation

For Target 17.16;

18). Indicator 17.16.1: Number of countries reporting progress in multi-stakeholder development effectiveness monitoring frameworks that support the achievement of the sustainable development goals

For Target 17.17;

19). Indicator 17.17.1: Amount in United States dollars committed to public-private partnerships for infrastructure

For Target 17.18;

20). Indicator 17.18.1: Statistical capacity indicator for Sustainable Development Goal monitoring

21). Indicator 17.18.2: Number of countries that have national statistical legislation that complies with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics

22). Indicator 17.18.3: Number of countries with a national statistical plan that is fully funded and under implementation, by source of funding

For Target 17.19;

23). Indicator 17.19.1: Dollar value of all resources made available to strengthen statistical capacity in developing countries

24). Indicator 17.19.2: Proportion of countries that (a) have conducted at least one population and housing census in the last 10 years; and (b) have achieved 100 per cent birth registration and 80 per cent death registration



As we have seen in this article, the Sustainable Development Goals (also called ‘Global Goals’ or SDGs) are a set of seventeen (17) goals designed to meet the most important needs, and address the most severe challenges on Earth.

The ultimate aim of the SDGs is to achieve Sustainable Development, which will ensure that the future generations of all populations (humans, flora, fauna) are able to survive. Sustainable Development is intended to have positive impacts on the economy, environment, and health of the Earth as a whole.

This article has also indicated that there have been many challenges encountered in the efforts to meet the set targets for Sustainable Development. One of such challenges has been the COVID-19 pandemic, which affected all sectors of the society.

It shows that much more effort is requited in the movement for Sustainable Development. While it is unlikely that many of the goals will be accomplished by the year 2030, effective partnership and cooperation for the goals will still go a long way toward improving the society for the better.



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