Green Hydrogen Fuel, Production, Benefits, Disadvantages

Green hydrogen fuel is energy-intensive hydrogen that is produced by electrolytic or thermochemical conversion processes driven by renewable energy.

This article discusses green hydrogen fuel, production, process, benefits and disadvantages, as outlined below;


-Green Hydrogen Fuel

-Green Hydrogen Production

-Green Hydrogen Process

-Benefits of Green Hydrogen

-Disadvantages of Green Hydrogen





Green Hydrogen Fuel

Green hydrogen fuel is a type of renewable fuel that is produced by electrolytic splitting of water using power from renewable energy resources.

As stated above, the most common way to make green hydrogen fuel is by subjecting water molecules to electrolytic decomposition or splitting, in a cell to which electricity is supplied from solar panels or other renewable energy systems [4].

Green hydrogen can be used as a fuel in future because it is sustainable and has immense potential as a fossil fuel-substitute in the energy transition process [5].

For it to become fully adoptable, the cost and energy efficiency of the green hydrogen production process must be optimized.

Raw materials to be utilized as feedstock for producing green hydrogen, as well as modified engines to run on this fuel, must also be diversified.



Green Hydrogen Production

Green hydrogen production is predicated on the establishment of sustainability while isolating hydrogen from its raw material-sources.

This sustainability can be measured on the basis of greenhouse emission, energy consumption rates, socioeconomic consequences, and general environmental impacts.

Green hydrogen is produced by the electrolysis of water molecules to yield oxygen and hydrogen, in a redox reaction process.

The ‘greenness’ of the above approach depends on the cleanliness, availability and affordability of energy involved.

Hydrogen production is therefore only green when the energy used to drive the process is renewable and has no significant emissions, as is the case with solar and wind energy.

Globally, the proportion of hydrogen production that is green is between 0.1-1.0%. This production is carried out mostly in developed economies like China and the United States.



Green Hydrogen Process

Green hydrogen process refers to the mechanism by which green hydrogen production occurs.

The trend of any given green hydrogen process is dependent on the details of the process, including the feedstock, equipment, and energy resources used.

For solar-powered green hydrogen production using an electrolyzer, the three main steps involved are; current transmission, water splitting, hydrogen isolation.

Where biogas is the primary feedstock for green hydrogen production, multiple steps like gas reforming, phase reaction and hydrogen isolation are applicable [3].

Green hydrogen process may be thermochemical. In such cases, the source of energy is usually nuclear, geothermal or waste energy [1], with which water can be subjected to a series of chemical reactions to isolate hydrogen at high temperatures ranging between 500-2000°C.

The main threat to the sustainability of green hydrogen production process is cost; as most of these processes are energy-intensive. This threat may however be mitigated is the process relies entirely on renewable energy.

Green Hydrogen Process: Solar-powered Electrolyzer as an Equipment involved in Green Hydrogen Production (Credit: CambridgeBayWeather 2008 .CC BY-SA 4.0.)
Green Hydrogen Process: Solar-powered Electrolyzer as an Equipment involved in Green Hydrogen Production (Credit: CambridgeBayWeather 2008 .CC BY-SA 4.0.)



Benefits of Green Hydrogen

Benefits of green hydrogen are;

1). Versatility of application

2). Relatively simple production process

3). Energy from green hydrogen can be stored in any of various energy storage systems like batteries

4). No significant emissions or environmental impact

5). Both production and utilization are scalable



Disadvantages of Green Hydrogen

Disadvantages of green hydrogen are;

1). High production cost

2). Raw material selectivity

3). High-pressure compression and low temperature are required for storage [2]

4). Flammability and volatility may pose safety threat

5). Legal and social acceptability limitations





Green hydrogen fuel is a product of sustainable development in the energy sector, whereby hydrogen energy is produced from raw materials like water, through renewable energy-powered conversion..

Benefits of green hydrogen are; versatility of application, relatively-simple production, storability, no significant emission, and scalability.

Disadvantages of green hydrogen are; high production cost, raw material selectivity, high pressure compression and low temperature storage requirements, flammability and volatility risks, legal and social acceptability limitations.





1). Balta, M. T.; Dincer, I.; Hepbasli, A. (2009). “Geothermal‐based hydrogen production using thermochemical and hybrid cycles: A review and analysis.” International Journal of Energy Research 34(9):757 – 775. Available at: (Accessed 17 December 2022).

2). Chilev, C. P.; Lamari, F. (2015). “Hydrogen storage at low temperature and high pressure for application in automobile manufacturing.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 41(3). Available at: (Accessed 17 December 2022).

3). Marcoberardino, G. D.; Vitali, D.; Spinelli, F.; Binotti, M.; Manzolini, G. (2018).”Green Hydrogen Production from Raw Biogas: A Techno-Economic Investigation of Conventional Processes Using Pressure Swing Adsorption Unit.” Processes 6(3). Available at: (Accessed 17 December 2022).

4). Pitchaimuthu, S; Sridharan, K.; Nagarajan, S.; Anantharaj, S.; Robertson, P.; Kuehnel, F.; Irabien Gulías, U.; Maroto Valer, M. (2022). “Solar hydrogen fuel generation from wastewater-beyond photoelectrochemical water splitting: a perspective.” Energies, 2022, 15(19), 7399. Available at: (Accessed 17 December 2022).

5). Qazi, U. Y. (2022). “Future of Hydrogen as an Alternative Fuel for Next-Generation Industrial Applications; Challenges and Expected Opportunities.” Energies 15(13):4741. Available at: (Accessed 17 December 2022).

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