Electricity Meaning, History, Types, Concepts, Generation and Uses

Electricity is a unique phenomenon which involves the statics and dynamics of charged particles.

In this article, the concept of electricity is discussed extensively, under the following subheadings;

-Meaning of Electricity

-The Study of Electricity

-Types of Electricity

-History and Development of Electricity

-Theories and Concepts of Electricity

-Electricity and Materials

-Charge, Current, Field, and Potential of Electricity

-Circuits and Electricity: The Electric Circuit

-Electricity Generation: Sources of Electricity

-Statistics: Sources of Electricity in 2021

-Uses of Electricity




Meaning of Electricity

We may choose to describe electricity as the product of either the motion, or potential (static state), of charged particles. Specifically, the charges involved in producing electricity are negative charges, which also implies that electricity is produced from electrons.

Another possible definition of electricity is a set of physical effects and phenomena that are associated with the occurrence and dynamics of matter which is carrying an electric charge.

There are several different effects of the phenomenon called electricity. One notable example of these effects is lightning [33]. Other effects include heat, static electricity and electric discharges. Also, electricity has been found to be related to other important physical phenomena like magnetism [15].


The Study of Electricity

The study of electricity dates as far back as the seventeenth century [21]. Early developments include the observation of the movement of electrons within and across charged bodies.

A major breakthrough in the revelation and understanding of electricity occurred in the nineteenth century, with the discovery of the relationship between electricity and magnetism. This discovery formed the basis of the concept of electromagnetism, which has been very instrumental in further developments till today.

During the industrial revolution, electric technology experienced a dramatic rate of advancement along with the growth of the energy industry. One of the factors which attributed to the rapid development of electricity studies was the vast range of application of electricity in basically all sectors of the society.

In order to simplify the study of electricity, it has been divided into a number of distinct fields that include electrostatics, electrical engineering, and electromagnetism.


Types of Electricity

The two main types of electricity are Static and Current electricity.

1). Static Electricity

Static electricity is simply the product of the buildup of electric charges on the surface of a material or body.

Often, there is an imbalance in the proportion of opposing charges on the material or body. Static electricity is produced generally from friction. This implies that static charges may build up on the surface of a body when it is in close contact with another body, and there is fair amount of relative motion between both bodies.

Because of the presence of opposite charges, static electricity may cause attraction between two bodies. This is owing to the fact that opposite or unlike poles attract each other [5].

The effects of static electricity can be observed with simple experiments, such as rubbing wool and rubber or glass together. Friction which occurs when these objects are in contact, leads to a charge-buildup and may cause visible sparks, and/or attraction between objects.

2). Current Electricity

The best way to describe current electricity, is as a continuous flow of electrons across an electric charge field.

Current can only be effectively propagated through a conductor [17]. This is simply a material that allows electrons go flow through it with little or no restriction.

Current electricity can be differentiated into two categories, which are the Direct Current (DC) and the Alternating Current (AC). As the term implies, Direct Current is produced when electrons flow along one definite path or direction. Alternating Current is produced when electrons flow in opposing directions, thereby creating an alternating or oscillating pattern.

Direct Current is not generally suitable for powering electrical appliances. It therefore has to be converted to Alternating Current using an inverter [23]. Subsequently, the alternating current can be converted from one voltage to another using a transformer.


History and Development of Electricity

The earliest knowledge of the existence of electric charges can be traced back to as far back as 2750 BCE. This is based on records in Ancient Egypt, of electric shocks from eels [25].

In other parts of the world, including Ancient Rome, the Middle East, and Greece, electric rays and some species of catfish were observed to have similar characteristics.

Around 1700 BCE, the electric currents propagated by these organisms were studied and it was found that these charges were able to travel through some materials. These materials were therefore identified as conductors.

Much later, around 600 BCE, static electricity was observed [2]. A notable contributor to this development was Thales of Miletus, who recorded his observations of charge-effects on materials like amber when rubbed with other materials like fur. These effects caused the charged body to attract oppositely-charged bodies, a phenomenon which Thales likened to magnetism.

However, in 1600, William Gilbert, an English Scientist, made the distinction between electricity and magnetism in his studies, which he published under the title; ‘De Magnete’ [41]. Based on this publication, the term Electricity was coined in 1646 by Thomas Browne [24].

Benjamin Franklin is famously credited with the modern discovery of electricity. This discovery was driven by an experiment which he carried in 1752 [19]. In his experiment, Franklin observed that charges accumulated on a metallic key which he had attached to a kite and exposed to the atmosphere during a lightning storm.

Electricity in the form neuron propagation in the bodies of living organisms was studied by Luigi Galvani in 1791, a phenomenon which he termed; Bioelectromagnetics [27]. Nine years later, the storage of static electricity was demonstrated by Alessandro Volta in 1800 [42]. This early battery design was composed of layers of copper and zinc which were placed in alternating succession.

André-Marie Ampère and Hans Christian Ørsted pioneered the development of electromagnetic studies through their works between 1819 and 1820 [4]. Theoretical description of the relationship between electricity magnetism was then given by James Clerk Maxwell, in an 1862 publication titled; On Physical Lines of Force [39].

Electromagnetic Induction was observed by Micheal Faraday in 1832, whereby he discovered that electric charges were induced in a copper coil when a magnet was passed through it [1]. Faraday’s discovery formed the basis of the modern mechanism of electricity generation using the principle of electromagnetic induction.

The nineteenth century was characterized by a rapid and significant rate of progress in studies and discoveries relating to electricity. In 1879, American inventor Thomas Edison developed the first incandescent light bulb which ran on electricity [34]. Heinrich Hertz performed experiments in 1887 whizh showed the interaction between ultraviolet rays and electric charges.

In 1888, a profound discovery of the generation of alternating current (AC), by Nikola Tesla, was patented [35]. This alternating current generation method involved the effective use of an induction motor.

The earlier work of Heinrich Hertz perhaps formed the bedrock of further studies by Albert Einstein, who in 1905 described the photoelectric effect in a publication, which revealed that the photoelectric effect was driven by the energetic properties of light photons [14]. This led to the Law of the Photoelectric Effect, for which Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics sixteen years later.

Through the understanding of photoelectricity, other important technological developments such as solar PV panels have been achieved.

In the early twentieth century (and for the rest of the twentieth century), advancements in electricity studies opened up other avenues like that of renewable energy and transistor technology.

Following the development of the photovoltaic solar cell and solar panels, the importance of semiconductors to amass and mobilize electric charges was revealed. This led to the growth of solid-state and quantum physics, based on which the first functional transistor was developed in 1947 by Walter Houser Brattain and John Bardeen [11].

Early transistors were built using Germanium semiconductor, and were relatively bulky and less efficient. Improvement came in 1959, in the form of a silicon-based metallic oxide transistor developed at Bell Laboratories by Dawon Kahng and Mohammed Atalla [6].

Semiconductor transistors have facilitated much of the modern advancements in electrical science and engineering, including LED (Light-Emitting Diode) technology, various electrical storage devices and Integrated Circuits.

Current advancements in the field of electricity have been mainly in the area of renewables like solar, wind, hydro, as well as in the development of energy-efficient appliances. Companies like Tesla motors have also spear-headed the advancement of electric car technology, while others have driven the development of more efficient and effective ways of storing electricity.


Theories and Concepts

1). Maxwell’s Equations of Electricity and Magnetism

James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) built upon the earlier works of physicists like Faraday, Coulomb, Oersted and Gauss, to develop his concept of the electric field [9]. The studies carried out by Maxwell also covered other related concepts like magnetism. The following four equations are the main outcomes of these studies;

1a). The Gauss’s Law (and Equation) Of Electricity

He defined an electric field as the force experienced by a unit charge, further showing that this force bears relationship to the permittivity of free space, given by the constant ε0. Maxwell’s studies led to the development of an equation based on Coulomb’s Law. This equation constitutes the Gauss’s Law of Electricity, and is given (in integral form) as;

∫E⋅dA=q/ε0…. (1)


1b). The Gauss’s Law (and Equation) of Magnetic Fields

Also, the magnetic tendency of electricity was studied by Maxwell. Based on his studies, he stated that the force in a magnetic field travels along continuous and definite lines, so that no magnetic poles exist in isolation. He showed that a relationship exists between the magnetic force and the field lines along which it travels. This relationship is represented by the permeability of free space; a magnetic constant given as μ0 [18].

The studies on magnetic fields by Maxwell led to the Gauss’s Law  of Magnetism, with the following equation;


1c). Faraday’s Law (and Equation) Magnetic Induction

According to Faraday’s Law of magnetic induction, the magnitude of electromotive force (EMF) in an electric circuit is directly proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux.

The law of magnetic induction expresses the relationship between a changing magnetic field and the current induced as a result of the field. Maxwell provided an equation to express this concept, as follows;


1d). Ampere’s Law of Electric Circuit (and the Ampere-Maxwell equation)

Ampere’s law states that a changing electric field or alternating current in a circuit, produces a circulating magnetic field with time.

The Ampere-Maxwell equation illustrates this law. It is given as;



In the four of Maxwell’s equations on electricity, the terms are given as follows;

Symbol/Constant Meaning
B Magnetic Field
C Speed of light
A Electric current displacement
E Electric Field
H Magnetic field strength
I Electric Current
J Current Density
M Magnetization
P Polarization
ε0 Permittivity of free space
μ0 Permeability of free space
Charge Density


2). Watt’s Law

Watt’s Law simply states that electric Power is a product of both current and voltage in an electricity-driven circuit.

The law is expressed by the following equation;

P= IV….(5)





Each unit of electric power is measured in Watts.


3). Ohm’s Law

Ohm’s law of electricity states that the magnitude of current which flows through a conductor material from one point to another, is directly proportional to the potential difference (or voltage) across the material.

The mathematical expression of Ohm’s Law is given by;

V/I= R….(6)

Where R is a constant of proportionality known as the resistance of the material. It is measured in Ohms.


4). Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetism

As the above subheading implies, Faraday’s Law highlights the relationship between electricity and magnetism.

This law is the very basis of electromagnetism, a phenomenon and mechanism which has been helpful in the design of electricity generators for several decades so far. It is also one of the concepts used by Maxwell in his famous and important theoretical equations. 

Simply put, Faraday’s Law states that the electromotive force (EMF) in an electric circuit is equal to the rate of change in magnetic flux [10]. In other words, an electromotive force (electricity generated by mobilization of electrons) is produced when a magnetic flux is continuously changing within an electric circuit (which is basically a system of conductors).

Faraday’s Law is mathematically represented by the following equation;



E=Electromotive force (EMF)

dB=Change in Magnetic flux

dt=Change in time


5). Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL)

A simple statement of Kirchoff’s Law is given as follows;

The total amount of current which is entering a circuit junction (or ‘node’) is equal to the amount of current which is leaving the node at any given time [36].

Based on the above statement, it can be concluded that there is no loss of charge within an electric circuit. As a result, the Kirchoff’s Current Law is often also referred to as the law of Conservation of Charge.

Another simple way to define Kirchoff’s Current Law, is that the algebraic sum of current leaving and entering an electric circuit is always equal to zero. This indicates that electricity is typically conserved within a circuit.

The mathematical expression of Kirchoff’s Law is given as;


where I(in) is the sum of all current entering the circuit, and I(out) is the sum of all current leaving the circuit.


6). Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)

Kirchoff’s voltage law states that the total magnitude of voltage around any electricity -driven circuit, is equal to the sum of all voltage drops within the same loop [46]. This implies that the sum total of all voltages within and around a loop in an electric circuit, is equal to zero.

Like Kirchoff’s current law, this law suggests that there is conservation of power within a system that is driven by electricity.


7). Lenz’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction

Lenz’s law of electromagnetic induction, states that the induced current in an electric circuit, flows in such a direction as to produce a magnetic field which opposes the initial magnetic field that produced it [3].

The magnetic field which induces current in an electric circuit is always a dynamic field, which is constantly changing.


8). Coulomb’s Law

Also referred to as the Inverse-square law, Coulomb’s Law states that the magnitude of electrostatic force between two charged bodies is directly proportional to the product of the charges (carried by the charged bodies) and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two bodies [40].

An implication of Coulomb’s Law is that the two bodies will attract each other if they carry opposite charges, and repel each other if they carry identical charges.

Coulomb’s Law describes the interactive behavior of electricity. It is mathematically expressed as follows;

F = kq1q2/r2….(9)


F= Electrostatic force between the charged bodies

q1 and q2= The charges carried by each of the bodies

r= The distance between the charged bodies

k= Electrostatic constant


9). Fleming’s Right-Hand Rule

The main purpose of Fleming’s Right-Hand Rule is to illustrate and simplify the electromagnetic concept of Faraday’s Law.

Mainly, Faraday’s Law proposes that a conductor which is moved relative to a magnetic field will experience a force driven by both electricity and magnetism, called the electromotive force (EMF), which will lead to the movement of charges across the conductor.

Fleming’s Right-Hand Rule explains the distribution and orientation of the components of the electromagnetic system. It states that if the second finger of an outstretched right hand is aligned with the direction of EMF or induced current in the conductor, then; the thumb will point in the direction of movement of the conductor, and the fore finger will point in the direction of the magnetic field.

The rule applies when the hand is held out with the fore finger, thumb, and second finger in perpendicular directions to each other.

This is shown in the image below;

electricity, Fleming's right hand rule
A Hand Illustrating Electricity Propagation in a Magnetic Field according to Fleming’s Right-Hand Rule


10). Fleming’s Left-Hand Rule

We can consider the Fleming’s left-hand rule to be a reverse form of the right-hand rule.

According to the left-hand rule, when a left hand is held out with the thumb, second finger and forefinger at right angles to each other; the forefinger will point in the direction of the electric field in an electromagnetic circuit, while the thumb and the second finger will point toward the direction of the electromotive force and the induced current, respectively.


11). Gauss’s Law

Gauss’s Law describes the distribution of charges in a field driven by static electricity.

The law states that the net electric flux of an electric field on a closed surface is directly proportional to the electric charge enclosed within the surface [45]. In the context of Gauss’s law, the charged surface is referred to as the Gaussian surface.


Electric Charge-flow and Conductor Materials

Based on the properties and effects or electricity, all materials can be categorized into two main groups. These are the conductors and insulators, respectively.

1). Conductors

Conductors refer to materials that are capable of permitting electrons to flow freely through them. This implies that electric charges may move from particle to particle across a conductor. 

Because they tend to allow electrons to flow freely through them, the entire surface area of conductors will experience a fairly equal distribution of charges at any given time.

Conductors are also capable of transferring their charge to any other body with which they come in contact [13]. This transfer is most effective when the other body is also a conductor.

Examples of conductors include copper, iron, aluminum, graphite and mercury.

2). Insulators

We may consider insulators to be the converse form of conductors. These materials have the tendency to resist the flow of electrons through them.

In general, insulators are materials which impede the free flow of electrons through them, from one particle to the other [26]. This implies that charges are not transferred effectively through insulators, as is the case for conductors. As a result, there is no even distribution of charges across the surface of an insulator.

Insulators are not useful in transferring the charges that constitute electricity. However, they find important application in controlling the distribution and flow of electricity from a charged body or system. For example, insulators can be used to prevent a charged conductor from transferring its electricity to other objects in its surroundings.

Examples of insulators include rubber, plastics, glass, styrofoam, oil, dry wood and paper.


Asides the two main categories of materials with respect to electricity (conductors and insulators), there is another unique category of materials called semiconductors. This category is briefly described below;

3). Semiconductors

As the name implies, semiconductors are materials which have a higher degree of conductivity than the typical insulator (such as rubber), but less than the typical conductor (such as copper) [47; 38].

The importance of semiconductors exceeds the field of conventional electricity. Some notable uses  of semiconductors so far include computer chip manufacturing, solar panels, medical equipment, and other hardware.

Common examples of semiconductors include silicon, germanium, and selenium. Others include boron, arsenic, tellurium, and antimony.


Electric Charge, Current, Field, and Potential

1). ‘Charge’, with respect to Electricity: The Electric Charge

Within the context of electricity, the charge (also called; ‘electric charge’) is the property which causes a body to experience the effects of an electric (or electromagnetic) field, when it is placed within the field [31].

We can also describe electric charge as the energy which is carried by electrons within an electricity-driven field. Electric charges flow from one point to another by conduction or induction.

Although electricity is produced primarily by electrons which are negatively charged, electric charges may be either positive or negative. This is because the presence of positive charges helps to set up a charge gradient that makes electrons flow continuously, thereby producing electricity.

The unit of electric charge is the Coulomb; which can be defined as the magnitude of charge that is experienced within an electric field in one second. Mathematically, the following formula expresses the electric charge;

Q= It….(10)


Q= Electric Charge

I= Current

t= Time


2). ‘Current’, with respect to Electricity: The Electric Current

By way of definition, electric current is simply the flow of electric charges [8].

We can also describe electric current as the rate of flow of electric charge past a specific point within an electric circuit. Current is one of the most essential concepts in the field of electricity, because electricity itself is the effect of electric current.

Based on Ohm’s law, the mathematical expression of electric current is given as follows;



I= Electric Current

V= Voltage

R= Resistance

Another mathematical expression of electric current is based on the electric charge formula, and given by;



I= Electric Current

Q= Charge

t= Time

The S.I unit of electric current is the Ampere, which can be described as the rate of flow of an electric charge of one Coulomb.


3). ‘Field’, with respect to Electricity: The Electric Field

An electric field refers to the physical region surrounding a system of electric charges.

Another way to define an electric field, is as the region around a charged body, within which the effect of electricity can be felt [30].

The concept of the electric field was developed in order to understand the relationship between electric charges and the effects (or force) of electricity. Based on this objective, an electric field is the force experienced per unit charge, around a charged body.

Electric fields are defined generally by a series of field lines. These lines indicate that electric charges flow outward from the positive to negative segments of the field, as illustrated below;


Electricity: electric field
‘Field’ with respect to Electricity: Electric Field Lines (Credit: Sharayanan 2007 .CC BY-SA 3.0.)


4). ‘Potential,’ with respect to Electricity: The Electric Field Potential

Electric potential is simply the amount of work that is required to move a unit charge from one point to another, against the direction of an electric field [32].

Mathematically, electric potential is expressed as;



U= Electric Potential

q= Electric Charge

V= Potential Difference across the electric field

Also, electric potential is given by



U= Electric Potential

F= Force within the electric field

q= Electric Charge


Circuits and Electricity: The Electric Circuit

An electric circuit is simply a closed loop or system that is comprised of conductor material that allows the free flow of electrons [20].

We can also describe an electric circuit as a system comprised of interconnected electric components [37]. It is the basic structure within which electricity is propagated and utilized.

A simple electric circuit consists of a source of electricity, such as a battery or generator; conductors to facilitate the flow of the electric current produced, and electric appliances or other components (like light bulbs) that utilize the electricity in the circuit.

Electric Circuit
Basic System of Electricity: A Simple Electric Circuit


Some of the common components of an electric circuit include resistors, batteries, diodes, transistors, switches, inductors, capacitors, and load.


Electricity Generation: Sources of Electricity

Generally, electricity is not considered to be among the forms of energy. This is because it does not exist naturally and must be derived from other naturally-existing sources of energy like fossil fuels. Based on this, electricity is often referred to as a Secondary form of energy (which is derived from the primary sources of energy).

The sources of energy which are used to produce electricity include fossil fuels, nuclear energy, solar, hydro, and other forms of renewable energy. These sources are discussed below;


1). Fossil Fuels

Because fossil fuels are highly combustible and generate large quantities of heat energy when burnt, they can be used to generate electricity, either through steam turbines or electromagnetic generators.

Fossil fuels used in electricity generation include Natural gas, Coal, and Petroleum [15]. Generally, fossil fuels account for over 60 percent of electricity in the United States.

In fossil fuel power plants, fossil fuels are burnt to produce heat energy which drives a steam turbine that produces electricity.

Modern advancements in technology have included the development of a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant, which generates more electricity than conventional steam turbines.

Fossil fuels represent a relatively cheap and effective source of energy to produce electricity. However, the burning of these fuels also tends to release large volumes of greenhouse gas into the atmosphere, which in turn leads to global warming and climate change [12]. Burning of fossil fuels also releases environmental contaminants like nitrous oxide and sulfuric oxide, which can cause atmospheric pollution and acid rain.


2). Nuclear Energy as a Source of Electricity

Nuclear energy is produced from nuclear reactions, specifically nuclear fission [43].

It is used to generate electricity in nuclear reaction plants, where nuclear energy is harnessed to produce heat which drives a steam turbine, thereby producing electricity.

The importance of nuclear energy in electricity generation stems from the fact that this form of energy does not cause any greenhouse emissions and therefore conserves the quality of the environment. Also, nuclear energy has a high density compared to other clean forms of energy like solar and wind. In the United States, nuclear energy accounts for an average of 20 percent of electricity generated.


3). Renewable Energy as a Source of Electricity

Renewable energy has the advantages of having a fair degree of sustainability.

3a).  Wind Energy and Electricity

In order to harness wind energy effectively, a wind turbine is used.

Although wind turbines have limitations such as the dependence on geographic location, they are nonetheless fairly effective. In the United States, wind energy accounts for roughly 8.0 percent of total electricity production.

3b) Hydropower and Electricity

Hydropower is energy produced by flowing water [22]. In hydropower plants, this energy is used to drive a turbine which is connected to an electricity generator. About 7.0 percent of electricity in the United States is generated from hydropower plants.

3c). Biomass and Electricity

Roughly 1.4 percent of electricity generated in the United States can be attributed to biomass. Simply put, biomass refers to matter derived from organic sources [7].

Such matter is capable of producing heat energy through combustion (biofuel). Biomass can also be converted to gaseous form (called ‘biogas’) which is used in internal combustion engines or turbine systems.

3d). Geothermal Energy and Electricity

As the name implies, geothermal energy is heat energy derived from the Earth [44]. This energy can be used to produce steam for driving turbines and producing electricity.

Approximately 0.5 percent of electricity in the United States is produced from geothermal energy.

3e). Solar Energy and Electricity

Solar energy refers to energy from the Sun. The use of solar energy for electricity generation is a notable aspect of renewable energy technology.

Devices used to convert solar energy to electricity include solar PV panels, and various kinds of solar thermal collectors.

The average contribution of solar energy to electricity generation in the United States is 2.0 percent.


Statistics: Sources of Electricity in 2021

The following table and chart show the percentage contribution of different energy sources, to electricity generation in the United States in 2021;


Energy Source Average Contribution to Electricity (%)
Fossil Fuels 60.1
Nuclear Energy 19.9
Hydropower 7.2
Solar Energy 2.4
Biomass 1.3
Wind Energy 8.6
Geothermal Energy 0.5


electricity sources chart
Chart showing sources of electricity United States, 2020


Uses of Electricity

1). Electricity for Lighting

Electric lights refer to devices that produce visible light from electricity.

Since the invention of the incandescent light bulb by Thomas Edison in 1879 [28], the use of electricity for lighting has grown immensely important and widespread.

Incandescent electric lights generally consume much electricity, 90 percent of which is lost as heat [29]. For this reason, light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs were developed much later; based on first demonstrations by R. J. Cherry and J. W. Allen in 1961.

The LED electric light is far more efficient than the incandescent bulb in terms of its conversion and conservation of electricity.

Some LED electric lights convert up to 80-90 percent of their electricity to light, and they generally have a much longer lifespan than incandescent light bulbs.

In many residential facilities, lighting consumes up to 10 percent of total electricity supply. In the entire United States in 2020, approximately 2 percent of electricity was consumed by lighting [16].


2). Electricity for Heating and Cooling

Electricity is also used for space heating and cooling, by the help of appliances like air-conditioners and reverse air-conditioners. These appliances work by pumping warm and cool air into or out of a defined space.

Heating and Cooling applications are very significant with respect to the use of electricity. In many buildings, more than half of electricity supply is used in heating and cooling.


3). Electricity for Appliances

Most appliances today rely on electricity to function. Such appliances are used in residential buildings, offices, and industrial facilities among others.

Examples of electricity-dependent appliances include air-conditioners, microwaves, electric mower, electric fan, heaters, and computers. These appliances vary in the amount of power which they consume, which is also referred to as their load.


4). Electricity for Automobiles

As part of the efforts to achieve sustainable development and conserve the environment, the automobile industry has experienced changes in the source of energy for automobiles. Electric cars and other similar machines have become part of the modern developments in the automobile industry. These automobiles are powered (solely or partially) by battery systems which store energy in the form of electricity.

Recent years have seen a phenomenal growth in the electric sector of the automobile industry, with many phenomenal developments in the form of improved automobile functionalities of speed, efficiency and resilience. Electric automobiles are very important to the future of the automobile industry as a whole, especially because of their tendency to minimize the emission of greenhouse gases and the occurrence of global warming.



While electricity is not one of the primary sources of energy, it has become one of the most useful and versatile forms of power in the world today.

In simple form, electricity can be defined as the effects of electric charges on a body. The types of electricity include static electricity, constituted by the mere presence of charges, and current electricity, which is occurs when charges flow continuously within an electric field.

Based on electric charges and their effects, all materials can be grouped into a set of distinct categories. These include the conductors, insulators and semiconductors. Each of these groups of materials differs in its interaction with electric charges, and the properties of each group makes it useful in one way or another.

There are various laws of electricity, which include Maxwell’s theoretical expressions, Kirchoff’s current and voltage laws, Ampere’s current law, Gauss’s Law and Fleming’s Right-Hand Rule.

Important concepts in the field of electricity include the electric potential, electric field, electric charge, and electric current.

The sources of energy which are used to produce electricity include fossil fuels, nuclear energy, solar energy, wind energy and geothermal energy.

Electricity also has a wide range of applications such as heating and cooling, automobiles, electrical appliances and lighting.



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