5 Ideas of Smart City Development Explained

Ideas of smart city development include; automated green transport, distributed energy resource management with smart grid, sustainable manufacturing with IoT commerce, data-based renewable energy management, and hazard mitigation/environmental monitoring with WSNs.


This article discusses the ideas of smart city development, as follows;






1). Automated Green Transport (as one of the Ideas of Smart City Development)

In order to fully understand the idea of automated green transport in smart cities, some closely-related mobility concepts need to be distinguished; including automated transport, smart transport, and green transport.

Automated transport refers to any system or process of transport that has been enhanced and equipped using a combination of artificial intelligence and robotics, so that the system is able to function without active human interference or supervision.

As implied in the definition above, automated transport benefits from relatively-new technological concepts like robotics and automation [2].

Smart transportation in smart city development is the use of digital systems and internet of things (IoT) functionality, to optimize the transport sector through seamless interconnection, data sharing and communication.

Green transport refers to transport systems that are designed to have minimal environmental impact while operating [5]. This can be evaluated based on primary energy resource, greenhouse emissions, and role in regional air pollution.

Automated green transport can be achieved by integrating the renewable energy sector of smart cities with the transport sector. The result of such integration will be a uniform pace of energy transition for the energy and the transport sectors.

Smart automobile functionalities such as the use of software applications and machine learning, can help to automate the transport process through self-driving [9].

Mitigating environmental impacts demands the use of modern sustainable transport concepts, like electric cars and fuel cell-based hybrid vehicles that run on green hydrogen.

For the electric cars, their usage can be made green by developing charging stations that are powered solely by renewable energy, like solar and hydro.

The automated green transport idea is already being implemented on various scales in parts of the world. Its success depends on improvements in energy storage, renewable energy and automobile technologies.

Ideas of Smart City Development: Automated Green Transport (Credit: BB 22385 2019 .CC BY-SA 4.0.)
Ideas of Smart City Development: Automated Green Transport (Credit: BB 22385 2019 .CC BY-SA 4.0.)





2). Distributed Energy Resource Management with Smart Grid

Distributed energy resources in smart grid networks are varying energy sources and technologies that are made to work collaboratively through seamless integration in a data-driven framework.

The smart grid enables distributed energy management by providing a platform by which supply and demand can be balanced, and energy efficiency as well as safety can be increased through conservation of resources and timely monitoring of system performance [6].

Aside optimizing energy efficiency, smart grid networks can also help in energy conservation and general management.

Energy management in smart grid networks refers to the function of these networks that leads to optimal scheduling and utilization, so that energy waste is minimized.

Smart grids can unify the operations of multiple power plants, generators, inverters, and storage systems. The idea of distributed energy resources with smart grid in smart cities, is very important and practical, because electricity generation has huge implications to the overall wellbeing of the society.

Green economic development, ecosystem protection, and public health can all be affected positively through sustainable energy schemes in smart cities. With smart grid networks, renewable energy resources with limited capacity can be combined to yield sufficient amount of clean energy.

The smart grid-DER concept can also create jobs while supporting sustainable manufacturing, both of which can boost regional economic growth.






3). Sustainable Manufacturing with IoT Commerce (as one of the Ideas of Smart City Development)

Within the context of commerce, sustainable manufacturing can be defined as a form of manufacturing that aims to mitigate problems like resource depletion and environmental degradation, while yielding high-quality products.

IoT is used in the manufacturing industry by incorporating smart devices and advanced technology into the supply chain as well as the actual manufacturing process, so that resources like time, labor, capital and raw materials are conserved.

Three ways IoT benefits the manufacturing industry include increased sustainability, high-quality production, and innovation.

In smart cities, the local economy can benefit immensely from sustainable manufacturing and IoT commerce. To integrate these two functionalities, products and services as well as the processes of their manufacture and delivery, must be equipped with real-time data and digital communication [4].

The idea can help to make the supply chain for various manufacturing industries sustainable [8]. It can exponentially increase regional GDP by automating aspects of manufacturing, and can lead to improved quality of life.






4). Data-based Renewable Energy Management

Data science is used in renewable energy management, to monitor the performance of systems, diagnose potential problems, and support in real-time decision making.

For renewable energy management with data in smart cities, artificial intelligence functionalities and tools can be used to optimize how energy is consumed, based on decisions made during operations.

The mechanism described above can be applied within the context of smart grid-connected power plants and energy storage systems [7] [1].

Ideas of Smart City Development: Data-based Renewable Energy Management (Credit: La Citta Vita 2010 .CC BY-SA 2.0.)
Ideas of Smart City Development: Data-based Renewable Energy Management (Credit: La Citta Vita 2010 .CC BY-SA 2.0.)






5). Hazard Mitigation and Environmental Monitoring with WSNs (as one of the Ideas of Smart City Development)

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) comprise of seamlessly interconnected sensors that are used for data collection.

The basic components of wireless sensors are power supply, sensing unit, processor, and node [10].

Applications of wireless sensors include real-time data collection in various fields such as medicine, education, security, defense, agriculture and environmentalism [3].

The advantage of wireless sensor networks in environmental monitoring stems from their ability to operate in real-time, so that changes in environmental conditions can be detected instantaneously

Through wireless sensor-based monitoring, the environment can be assessed to forecast all forms of hazards and natural disasters. Such forecasting is usually very helpful toward hazard prevention and impact mitigation.

In smart cities, using sensors for environmental monitoring can be further enhanced by linking the sensors to alarm systems, as well as remedial systems, to make the process more proactive.







Ideas of smart city development are;

1. Automated Green Transport

2. Distributed Energy Resource Management with Smart Grid

3. Sustainable Manufacturing with IoT Commerce

4. Data-based Renewable Energy Management

5. Hazard Mitigation and Environmental Monitoring with WSNs







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2). Angelidou, M.; Politis, C.; Panori, A.; Barkratsas, T.; Fellnhofer, K. (2022). "Emerging smart city, transport and energy trends in urban settings: Results of a pan-European foresight exercise with 120 experts." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 183:121915. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2022.121915. (Accessed 22 January 2023).

3). Eghonghon Ukhurebor, K.; Odesanya, I. Soo Tyokighir, S.; George Kerry, R.; Samson Olayinka, A.; Oluwafemi Bobadoye, A. (2021). "Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications and Challenges." Wireless Sensor Networks - Design, Deployment and Applications. Available af: https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen. (Accessed 23 January 2023).

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5). Li, H. (2016). "Study on Green Transportation System of International Metropolises." Procedia Engineering 137:762-771. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.01.314. (Accessed 24 January 2023).

6). Meliani, M.; El Barkany, A.; Ikram, A.; Moumen, D. A.; Morad, M. (2021). "Energy management in the smart grid: State-of-the-art and future trends." International Journal of Engineering Business Management 13:184797902110329. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/18479790211032920. (Accessed 22 January 2023).

7). Mostafa, N. A.; Ramadan, H. S. M.; Elfarouk, O. M. O. (2022). "Renewable energy management in smart grids by using big data analytics and machine learning." Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mlwa.2022.100363. (Accessed 22 January 2023).

8). Prajapati, D.; Chan, F. T. S.; Chelladurai, D.; Lakshay, L.; Prata, S. (2022). "An Internet of Things Embedded Sustainable Supply Chain Management of B2B E-Commerce." Sustainability 14(9):5066. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095066. (Accessed 22 January 2023).

9). Rana, K., Kaur, P.; Mohammad, S. (2018). "Review on Machine Learning based algorithms used in Autonomous cars." SSRN Electronic Journal 5(10):114-118. Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3708283. (Accessed 24 January 2023).

10). Xia, F. (2009). "Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications." Sensors 9(11):8824-30. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3390/s91108824. (Accessed 23 January 2023).

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