3 Urbanization Examples Explained
Urbanization examples are; German urbanism and sub-urbanism, oil and gas-driven urbanization in the Niger Delta, and rapid urbanization and rural depopulation in France.
This article discusses urbanization examples, as follows;
1). Urbanism and Suburbanism in Germany (as one of the Urbanization Examples)
Urbanization rate in Germany is significant, with an average value of 0.12% as of 2021.
The main driver of German urbanization is industrial sector growth.
Urbanization began to occur in Germany between the mid-nineteenth and mid-twentieth centuries, the same period during which incipient industrialization was at its peak .
As of 2022, Germany’s urban population stands at approximately 78%.
Correlation between rural emigration and urbanization in Germany reveals complex relationships, due to the tendency of localization of urban economies and modernization of rural areas .
These factors (urban economy localization, rural modernization), have led to widespread development of sub-urban conditions in the rural parts of Germany; so that these areas have taken the socioeconomic form of urban areas while retaining some non-metropolitan and localized attributes.
The scenario described above has had the advantage of mitigating some of the problems of urbanization in Germany, such as overpopulation and rapid inflation.
However, it has simultaneously undermined some of sustainable development prospects of the country, especially with regards to localized sustainable agriculture and ecosystem conservation.
2). Oil and gas-driven Urbanization in the Niger Delta
Urbanization in the Niger Delta area has been driven mainly by energy resources; which in this case refers to petroleum and natural gas.
This trend commenced in the mid-twentieth century, after the commencement of major oil and gas operations in the region from the year 1956 .
With oil and gas operations, commercialization rates have also increased, along with rural population influx and internal population growth.
As in the case of Germany, the Niger Delta is home to active sub-urbanism as well, with many rural areas adopting urban principles within their locality.
While there is measurable and continuous economic growth in the urban and sub-urban areas, rural parts of the Niger Delta are generally subject to several problems of urbanism that is at play in their geographic neighbors.
These problems include severe environmental degradation especially through resource depletion, oil spillage, air pollution, greenhouse emission, and climate change.
As a result, the traditional livelihood of rural dwellers is significantly threatened, so that practices like crop and livestock farming, and fishing are hardly feasible or profitable in some rural areas .
The problems of oil and gas-induced urbanization in Niger Delta can all be traced to unsustainable drilling and petroleum production methods, which can be addressed by proactive environmental remediation, areal monitoring, policy development and implementation; including carbon tax, work safety, resource and ecosystem conservation policies.
3). Rapid Urbanization and Rural Depopulation in France (as one of the Urbanization Examples)
France became urbanized from the year 1960 onward; which is also the time from which industrial activities intensified in the region.
Presently, the rate of urbanization in France is relatively high, with an approximate value of 0.3% as of 2021, and even higher values in preceding years.
The areal portion of France that is urbanized is approximately 81% as of 2022. This is same as the current urban population of France, which sits at approximately 81%.
Rural depopulation has been a major phenomenon in the area for several decades, as large populations of rural French dwellers emigrate to the more commercialized zones.
However, sub-urbanism is not a major trend in France as it is in Germany. Instead, the rural areas that are converted, are subjected to an absolute urban transition, so that natural ecosystems, localization, and general rural life are all receding rapidly.
Urbanization and rural depopulation in France have had severe implications as well. These include mainly unfavorable economic dynamics, wide earning gaps, acute sociological heterogeneity and recurrent unemployment problems, among others.
Agricultural potential of the country as a whole has been affected notably since the onset of urbanization , so that many agricultural lands have been converted industrial, commercial, or urban residential lands.
Urbanization examples are;
1. Urbanism and Suburbanism in Germany
2. Oil and gas-driven Urbanization in the Niger Delta
3. Rapid Urbanization and Rural Depopulation in France
1). Altrock, U. (2022). “New (sub)urbanism? – How German cities try to create “urban” neighborhoods in their outskirts as a contribution to solving their recent housing crises.” Urban Governance, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 130-143. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ugj.2022.04.001. (Accessed 28 December 2022).
2). Illy, A.; Hornych, C.; Schwartz, M.; Rosenfeld, M. T. W. (2009). “Urban Growth in Germany – The Impact of Localization and Urbanization Economies.” SourceRePEc. Available at: https://www.econstor.eu/handle/10419/37052. (Accessed 28 December 2022).
3). Numbere, A. (2018). “The Impact of Oil and Gas Exploration: Invasive Nypa Palm Species and Urbanization on Mangroves in the Niger River Delta, Nigeria” Threats to Mangrove Forests (pp.247-266). Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73016-5_12. (Accessed 29 December 2022).
4). Numbere, A. (2021). “Impact of Urbanization and Crude Oil Exploration in Niger Delta Mangrove Ecosystem and Its Livelihood Opportunities: A Footprint Perspective.” Agroecological Footprints Management for Sustainable Food System (pp.309-344). Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-9496-0_10. (Accessed 28 December 2022).
5). Thompson, J. G. (1925). “Urbanization and Rural Depopulation in France,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics.” Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 7(1), pages 145-151. Available at: https://ideas.repec.org/a/oup/ajagec/v7y1925i1p145-151..html. (Accessed 28 December 2022).